Always On VPN Book Available for Pre-Order

Great news! My new book, Implementing Always On VPN, is now available for pre-order on Amazon.com. This new book, scheduled for release in late 2021, is a comprehensive implementation guide for Windows 10 Always On VPN. Drawing on many years of experience deploying Always On VPN for organizations worldwide, it covers all aspects of an Always On VPN deployment, including planning and design, prerequisite gathering, infrastructure preparation, and client deployment.

In addition, it contains detailed, prescriptive guidance for advanced configuration options such as application and traffic filtering and proxy server configuration. Cloud deployments using Azure VPN gateway and Virtual WAN are covered, and it includes guidance for configuring Azure MFA and Conditional Access.

Also, the book includes thorough guidance for provisioning certificates using Microsoft Endpoint Manager/Intune using both PKCS and SCEP. It outlines options for high availability for VPN and authentication infrastructure and provides details for ongoing system maintenance and operational support.

Finally, the book has an entire chapter dedicated to troubleshooting and resolving common (and not so common!) issues encountered with Windows 10 Always On VPN.

Reserve your copy today. Pre-order Implementing Always On VPN now!

Chapter List

  1. Always On VPN Overview
  2. Plan an Always On VPN Deployment
  3. Prepare the Infrastructure
  4. Configure Windows Server for Always On VPN
  5. Provision Always On VPN clients
  6. Advanced Configuration
  7. Cloud Deployments
  8. Deploy Certificates with Intune
  9. Integrating Azure MFA
  10. High Availability
  11. Monitor and Report
  12. Troubleshooting

Always On VPN Short Name Access Failure

Using Microsoft Endpoint Manager (Intune), administrators can provision Always On VPN to devices that are Azure AD joined only. Users accessing on-premises resources from these devices can still use seamless single sign-on, making this deployment option popular for organizations moving to the cloud.

Short Names

After deploying Always On VPN to Windows 10 devices that are Azure AD joined only and configured to use client certificate authentication, administrators may find that users cannot access on-premises resources by their short name, such as \\app1. The connection fails and returns the following error message.

“Windows can’t find <servername/sharename>. Check the spelling and try again.”

FQDN

Interestingly, on-premises resources are accessible using their fully qualified domain name (FQDN), such as \\app1.corp.example.net.

Troubleshooting

Testing name resolution using the short name works as expected, and the resource is reachable at the network layer, as shown here.

Workaround

This issue is related to how Windows performs authentication when connected via VPN. To resolve this issue, edit the rasphone.pbk file and change the value of UseRasCredentials to 0. Rasphone.pbk can be found in the $env:AppData\Microsoft\Network\Connections\Pbk folder.

After updating this setting, restart the VPN connection for the change to take effect.

Proactive Remediations

While helpful for testing, editing rasphone.pbk manually obviously does not scale well. To address this, consider using Intune Proactive Remediations. Intune Proactive Remediations allows administrators to deploy detection and remediation PowerShell scripts to monitor specific settings and update them if or when they change. Proactive Remediations will ensure the setting is applied consistently across all managed endpoints.

GitHub Repository

I have created a new GitHub repository dedicated to PowerShell scripts for Endpoint Manager Proactive Remediations for Always On VPN. There you will find detection and remediation scripts for the UseRasCredentials settings change described in this article.

Additional Information

Always On VPN Endpoint Manager Proactive Remediation Scripts on GitHub

Endpoint Manager Proactive Remediations Tutorial

Always On VPN and Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)

Always On VPN and Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)

Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) is a term that administrators are likely familiar with, as it is one of the hottest marketing buzzwords in circulation today. ZTNA can mean different things depending on the deployment scenario. ZTNA is fundamentally about enforcing the principle of least privilege for endpoints connecting remotely to the corporate network when it comes to enterprise mobility and remote access.

Trusted Access

Historically, VPNs and even DirectAccess granted full, unrestricted network access to authenticated devices and users. Once the endpoint has an IP address, and in the absence of other controls (routing limitations, firewall access controls, etc.), the user could access any resource on the internal network. The rationale was that authenticated devices and users should be considered “trusted”.

Limitations

The Trusted Access model has some significant limitations. It assumes that all traffic from authorized users and devices is legitimate. However, if an endpoint is compromised, an attacker has broad access to the internal network, which is not ideal from a security perspective.

Zero Trust

Zero Trust Network Access is a concept where administrators define explicitly the minimum level of access required to support remote workers. Instead of granting full network access to the endpoint, controlling access using fine-grained policies is enforced on the VPN connection. Configuring limited network access for Always On VPN clients dramatically reduces exposure of the internal network to compromised endpoints.

ZTNA Management

There is a significant management burden associated with this approach, however. Administrators must identify each application requiring VPN access and determine all associated protocols and ports to be allowed, and internal resources to which they will communicate. Although this task isn’t difficult if clients require access to a small subset of internal resources, it can be a substantial undertaking if clients require access to many internal resources from numerous client applications.

Moving Targets

Making things more challenging is that application and network infrastructure often change constantly, requiring administrators to manage network access continually to ensure application availability. When adding new applications or changing the internal infrastructure, updating the configuration on all remote endpoints will be required.

Updating Always On VPN configuration for devices managed with Microsoft Endpoint Manager (formerly Intune) isn’t difficult. However, it can be more challenging when using PowerShell with System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) or another endpoint management platform.

Traffic Filters

ZTNA can be configured with Always On VPN using Traffic Filters. With Traffic Filters, administrators can apply fine-grained access control for VPN traffic based on a combination of the following.

  • Source IP address (IP address, address range, or subnet)
  • Destination IP address (IP address, address range, or subnet)
  • Protocol (TCP, UDP, IP, etc.)
  • Source Port
  • Destination Port

Endpoint Manager Configuration

Configuring Traffic Filters for Always On VPN connections can be performed using Microsoft Endpoint Manager. Open the Endpoint Manager management console (https://endpoint.microsoft.com), navigate to the Always On VPN device configuration profile, then perform the following steps.

  1. Expand App and Traffic Rules.
  2. Click Add next to Network traffic rules for this VPN connection.
  1. Enter a descriptive name in the Name field.
  2. Select Split tunnel from the Rule type drop-down list.
  3. Enter “6” in the Protocol field.
  4. Enter “3389” in the Lower port and Upper port fields in the Remote port ranges section.
  5. Enter an IPv4 address in the Lower IPv4 address field.
  6. Enter an IPv4 address in the Upper IPv4 address field. Enter the same IPv4 address as the lower address to specify a single host.
  7. Click Save.

The example above shows a traffic filter restricting access to TCP port 3389 (Remote Desktop Protocol) from all VPN clients to the 172.16.0.0/24 network.

Note: Repeat these steps to create as many traffic filters as required for any processes or applications that must communicate over the Always On VPN connection.

XML Configuration

Traffic Filters can also be configured using custom XML. To implement the same Traffic Filter described previously, add the following code between the <VPNProfile> and </VPNProfile> tags in your XML configuration file.

<TrafficFilter>
   <Protocol>6</Protocol>
   <RemotePortRanges>3389</LocalPortRanges>
   <RemoteAddressRanges>172.16.0.0/24</RemoteAddressRanges>
</TrafficFilter>

Note: Address ranges used in Traffic Filters can be defined using CIDR notation in XML, but they are not supported using Microsoft Endpoint Manager today.

Default Deny

When configuring a Traffic Filter for an Always On VPN profile, an implicit “deny all” rule is automatically enabled. Any traffic not explicitly defined in a Traffic Filter will be denied, including unsolicited inbound traffic, which has crucial implications for the device tunnel because it is used commonly for system management of remote devices.

Direction

Traffic Filters are enabled for the Outbound direction only, by default. Beginning with Windows 10 2004, Microsoft introduced support for Inbound traffic filters. Before Windows 10 2004, configuring a Traffic Filter on the device tunnel would break manage-out scenarios by denying all unsolicited inbound network access.

As of this writing, configuring inbound Traffic Filters using Microsoft Endpoint Manager is not supported. They are only configurable using custom XML.

To implement a Traffic Filter to allow inbound RDP access from the internal network over the device tunnel, add the following code between the <VPNProfile> and </VPNProfile> tags in your XML configuration file.

<TrafficFilter>
   <Protocol>6</Protocol>
   <LocalPortRanges>3389</LocalPortRanges>
   <RemoteAddressRanges>172.16.0.0/16</RemoteAddressRanges>
   <Direction>Inbound</Direction>
</TrafficFilter>

Note: When configuring inbound Traffic Filters, specify the port of the listening process or application using the LocalPortRanges field.

Application Filters

Administrators can combine Application Filters with Traffic Filters to control network access over the Always On VPN connection even more granularly. Applications can be defined by the following.

  • Package Family Name (PFN) – This is the unique name of a Microsoft Store application. Use the Get-AppxPackage PowerShell command to find the PFN for an application.
  • File Path – This is the full path to any executable on the file system. For example, c:\Windows\System32\mstsc.exe.
  • SYSTEM – This allows Windows kernel-mode drivers (such as ping.exe and net.exe) to send traffic over the Always On VPN connection.

As of this writing, configuring Application Filters using Microsoft Endpoint Manager is not supported. They are only configurable using custom XML.

Application Filter Examples

Below are three examples showing different Application Filters based on file path, Package Family Name, and SYSTEM.

File Path

This example shows a Traffic Filter configured to allow RDP access to an internal subnet using the native Windows Remote Desktop client (mstsc.exe).

<TrafficFilter>
   <App>
      <Id>C:\Windows\System32\mstsc.exe</Id>
   </App>
   <Protocol>6</Protocol>
   <RemotePortRanges>3389</RemotePortRanges>
   <RemoteAddressRanges>172.16.0.0/24</RemoteAddressRanges>
</TrafficFilter>

Package Family Name

This example shows a Traffic Filter configured to allow RDP access to an internal subnet using the Microsoft Windows Store Remote Desktop client.

<TrafficFilter>
   <App>
      <Id>Microsoft.RemoteDesktop_8wekyb3d8bbwe</Id>
   </App>
   <Protocol>6</Protocol>
   <RemotePortRanges>3389</RemotePortRanges>
   <RemoteAddressRanges>172.16.0.0/24</RemoteAddressRanges>
</TrafficFilter>

SYSTEM

This example shows a Traffic Filter configured to allow the netsh.exe process access to an internal subnet.

<TrafficFilter>
   <App>
      <Id>SYSTEM</Id>
   </App>
   <Protocol>6</Protocol>
   <RemotePortRanges>445</RemotePortRanges>
   <RemoteAddressRanges>172.16.0.0/24</RemoteAddressRanges>
</TrafficFilter>

This example shows a Traffic Filter configured to allow the ping.exe process access to an internal subnet.

<TrafficFilter>
   <App>
      <Id>SYSTEM</Id>
   </App>
   <Protocol>1</Protocol>
   <RemoteAddressRanges>172.16.0.0/24</RemoteAddressRanges>
</TrafficFilter>

Note: Ping uses ICMP (IP protocol 1), which is a network layer protocol. As such, defining ports for the filter is not required.

IPv6 Compatibility

Sadly, the filtering techniques described in this article do not work when also configuring IPv6 on the Always On VPN connection. As of this writing, enabling Traffic Filters when an IPv6 address is assigned to the VPN interface is not supported. More details can be found here.

Always On VPN Traffic Filters and IPv6

Summary

Configuring Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) with Windows 10 Always On VPN is not trivial. Still, with attention to detail, it can be a highly effective tool to enforce fine-grained network access policies and reduce exposure of the internal network to compromised endpoints. Combining Traffic Filters with Application Filters allows administrators to tightly control Always On VPN access and ensure the principle of least privilege is applied.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Traffic Filters and IPv6

Windows 10 Always On VPN User Tunnel XML Configuration Reference File

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel XML Configuration Reference File

Windows 10 Always On VPN VPNv2 CSP Reference

IP Protocol Numbers

Always On VPN Traffic Filters and IPv6

Always On VPN Windows Server RRAS Service Does Not Start

Using Traffic Filters with Always On VPN provides administrators the option to configure a true Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) solution for their field-based users and devices. By enabling traffic filtering, network access over the Always On VPN connection can be controlled using fine-grained policies. Traffic Filter rules can be configured to restrict access based source and destination IP addresses, protocols, and source and destination ports. Administrators can further restrict access based on the application generating the traffic.

IPv6

While testing these features recently, I learned that the Microsoft Endpoint Manager (formerly Intune) user interface does not appear to support IPv6 when configuring traffic filter rules. As you can see here, the UI explicitly asks for an IPv4 address and complains when entering an IPv6 address in the address field, as shown here.

Interestingly, it is possible to add IPv6 addresses in XML, as follows.

<TrafficFilter>
   <App>
      <Id>Microsoft.RemoteDesktop_8wekyb3d8bbwe</Id>
   </App>
   <Protocol>6</Protocol>
   <RemotePortRanges>3389</RemotePortRanges>
   <RemoteAddressRanges>2001:470:f109::/48</RemoteAddressRanges>
</TrafficFilter>

Connection Failure

Unfortunately, after loading the XML on a test client, the Always On VPN connection fails with the following error message.

“Can’t connect to <ConnectionName>. Catastrophic failure.”

In addition, the Application event log records an event ID 20227 from the RasClient source with the following error.

“The user <UserName> dialed a connection name <ConnectionName> which has failed. The error code returned on failure is -2147418113.”

Workaround

At this time, the only known workaround is to update the configuration on the RRAS server to use IPv4 addressing for VPN clients.

Summary

Unfortunately, IPv6 is still a second-class citizen when it comes to Always On VPN. Although enabling IPv6 works well in most common deployment scenarios, the Microsoft Endpoint Manager management console often fails to accept IPv6 entries in IP address fields. In addition, some advanced features such as traffic filtering are incompatible with IPv6.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN and Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)

Windows 10 Always On VPN Windows Server RRAS Service Does Not Start

Always On VPN and Autopilot Hybrid Azure AD Join

Always On VPN and Autopilot Hybrid Azure AD Join

Windows Autopilot is a cloud-based technology that administrators can use to configure new devices wherever they may be, whether on-premises or in the field. Devices provisioned with Autopilot are Azure AD joined by default and managed using Microsoft Endpoint Manager. Optionally, an administrator can enable hybrid Azure AD join by also joining the device to an on-premises Active Directory domain using a domain join configuration profile in conjunction with the offline domain-join connector. Although enabling hybrid Azure AD join might sound appealing, there are specific deployment scenarios that present some rather unique and challenging problems when using this option.

Offline Hybrid Azure AD Join

For field-based devices, the device must have connectivity to a domain controller to support the initial login when the user has no local cached credentials. The Always On VPN device tunnel can be deployed in this scenario to provide connectivity and allow the user to log in to a new device the first time without being on-premises. The Always On VPN device tunnel is easily deployed using a Microsoft Endpoint Manager configuration profile. Certificates required to support the device tunnel can be deployed with Microsoft Endpoint Manager and one of the certificate connectors for Microsoft Endpoint Manager.

Windows 10 Professional

If a Windows 10 Professional device is configured using Autopilot, and hybrid Azure AD joined is enabled, the Always On VPN device tunnel can still be provisioned, but it won’t start automatically because it requires Enterprise Edition to be fully functional. This prevents the user from being able to logon the first time. The device must be upgraded to Enterprise Edition before the first user logon. There are multiple ways to accomplish this depending on the deployment scenario and activation requirements.

Multiple Activation Key

The easiest way to upgrade Windows 10 Professional to Enterprise Edition is to obtain a Multiple Activation Key (MAK) and deploy that to clients using a Microsoft Endpoint Manager configuration profile. Follow the steps below to create a configuration profile to perform this upgrade.

  1. Open the Microsoft Endpoint Manager console and click on Devices > Configuration Profiles.
  2. Click Create profile.
  3. Select Windows 10 and later in the Platform drop-down list.
  4. Select Templates in the Profile type drop-down list.
  5. Select Edition upgrade and mode switch from the list of templates.
  6. Click Create.

Use the following steps to configure the settings for the configuration profile.

  1. Enter a descriptive name for the configuration profile in the Name field.
  2. Enter a description for the profile in the Description field (optional).
  3. Click Next.
  4. Expand the Edition Upgrade section and select Windows 10 Enterprise from the Edition to upgrade to drop-down list.
  5. Enter your multiple activation product key in the Product Key field.

    Always On VPN and Autopilot Hybrid Azure AD Join

Once complete, assign the configuration profile to the appropriate groups and click Create.

KMS Activation

If Key Management Service (KMS) activation is required, follow the steps listed previously for MAK. Enter the KMS client setup key for Windows 10 Enterprise which is NPPR9-FWDCX-D2C8J-H872K-2YT43. The device will complete KMS activation when it can connect to the on-premises KMS host.

Subscription Activation

Windows 10 Enterprise Edition licensing is included in some Microsoft 365 subscriptions. This poses a unique challenge for hybrid Azure AD join scenarios, however. Specifically, subscription activation is a “step-up” process that requires Windows 10 Professional to have been successfully activated previously. Also, this occurs after the user logs on, but the user cannot log on unless the device tunnel is active. Catch 22!

Workaround

A multi-step process is required to address the limitations imposed by subscription activation. To begin, the device must be upgraded to Enterprise Edition, so the device tunnel is available for the initial user logon. This is a temporary, one-time upgrade to Enterprise Edition solely for the purpose of getting the device tunnel to connect and allow the user to authenticate.

To begin, download this PowerShell script and follow the steps below to deploy it to Windows 10 devices using Microsoft Endpoint Manager.

  1. Open the Microsoft Endpoint Manager console and click on Devices > Scripts.
  2. Click Add and select Windows 10.
  3. Enter a descriptive name for the configuration profile in the Name field.
  4. Enter a description for the profile in the Description field (optional).
  5. Click Next.
  6. Enter the location of the PowerShell script in the Script location field.
  7. Click Next, then assign the script to the appropriate device group(s) and click Add.

The PowerShell script will automatically install the KMS client setup key for Windows 10 Enterprise Edition, then restart the network interfaces to ensure the device tunnel starts. This will immediately upgrade the client device to Windows 10 Enterprise Edition and allow the user to authenticate.

Subscription activation with a step-up upgrade to Enterprise Edition still requires that Windows 10 Professional be activated first. To accomplish this, the embedded Windows 10 Professional key must be re-installed on the client. To do this, download this PowerShell script and follow the same steps listed previously to deploy a PowerShell script with Microsoft Endpoint Manager. However, this script should be assigned to users, not devices.

Once this script is run on the client it will be downgraded (temporarily) to Windows 10 Professional edition. After activation is successful, subscription activation will once again upgrade the client to Windows 10 Enterprise Edition.

Considerations

As you can see, the process of getting a Windows 10 Professional edition client onboarded in a hybrid Azure AD joined scenario is somewhat complex. My advice is to avoid this scenario whenever possible. Access to on-premises resources with the Always On VPN user tunnel with full single sign-on support is still available for users on Windows 10 devices that are Azure AD joined only. Unless there is a specific requirement to manage client devices using on-premises Active Directory and group policy, consider choosing native Azure AD join with Autopilot and manage devices using Microsoft Endpoint Manager exclusively.

Special Thanks

I would like to extend a special thank you to everyone in the Microsoft Endpoint Manager community who provided valuable input and feedback for me on this topic, especially John Marcum, Michael Niehaus, and Sandy Zeng. Follow the #MEMCM hashtag on Twitter to keep up on all things Microsoft Endpoint Manager.

Additional Information

Overview of Windows Autopilot

Windows 10 Subscription Activation

Windows 10 Always On VPN Class-Based Default Route and Microsoft Endpoint Manager

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography in Microsoft Endpoint Manager

Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography Native Support Now in Intune

Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography Native Support Now in IntuneMicrosoft recently announced support for native Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel configuration in Intune. Previously administrators had to use the complicated and error-prone custom XML configuration to deploy the Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel to their clients. That is no longer required with this recent Intune update. In addition, administrators may now specify custom cryptography settings for IPsec Security Association (SA) parameters for IKEv2 for both device tunnel and user tunnel connections. This effectively eliminates the requirement to use custom ProfileXML for most deployment scenarios.

Device Tunnel Configuration in Intune

Follow the steps below to configure and deploy a Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel using the native Intune user interface.

Create Profile

1. Open the Microsoft Endpoint Manager admin center (devicemanagement.microsoft.com).
2. Navigate to Devices > Configuration Policies.
3. Click Create profile.
4. Choose Windows 10 and later from the Platform drop-down list.
5. Choose VPN from the Profile drop-down list.
6. Click Create.

Profile Settings

Proceed with the profile configuration as you would normally, providing the VPN connection name, VPN server name(s), and choosing the option to register IP addresses with internal DNS. Next use the following steps to define a device tunnel connection and specify custom cryptography for IPsec SA parameters for IKEv2.

Configure a Device Tunnel

1. Select IKEv2 from the Connection type drop-down list.
2. Click Enable in the Always On section.
3. Select Machine Certificates from the Authentication method section.
4. If the computer certificate is provisioned using Intune, select the client authentication certificate (not required if the computer certificate is provisioned using on-premises Active Directory).
5. Click Enable in the Device Tunnel section.

Define Custom Cryptography

Follow the steps below to implement minimum security baseline cryptography settings for IKEv2.

IKE Security Association Parameters

1. Select AES-128 from the Encryption algorithm drop-down list.
2. Select SHA2-256 from the Integrity check algorithm drop-down list.
3. Select 14 from the Diffie-Hellman group drop-down list.

Child Security Association Parameters

1. Select CBC-AES-128 from the Cipher transform algorithm drop-down list.
2. Select HMAC-SHA256-128 from the Authentication transform algorithm drop-down list.
3. Select 14 from the Perfect forward secrecy (pfs) group drop-down list.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography Native Support Now in Intune

Important Note: The IPsec security association parameters outlined above are the minimum recommend security baseline for IKEv2 and are compatible with all supported versions of Windows Server RRAS. It is recommended that authenticated cipher suites (GCM) be used whenever possible. However, GCM ciphers are not supported for encryption prior to Window Server 1803. Administrators should review these security settings and adjust the parameters to meet their specific security requirements.

Server Configuration

When defining custom cryptography settings for IKEv2 for device tunnel deployment, it is critical that the server be configured using identical parameters. Failure to use matching cryptography settings on the client and server will result in error code 13868, which indicates an IPsec policy mismatch.

A PowerShell script to configure IKEv2 security association parameter minimum security baselines on the RRAS server as outlined above can be found here. The commands to make these changes on the Azure VPN gateway can be found in this post.

Caveats

While Microsoft has made great strides to ensure better support for Always On VPN configuration using the native Intune UI, there are a few critical settings are still not supported. In these scenarios the administrator must deploy Always On VPN using custom XML, as described here and here.

Custom Cryptography

IKEv2 custom cryptography settings are only exposed when IKEv2 is selected as the connection type. It appears that defining custom cryptography settings for IKEv2 when the connection type is set to Automatic is not supported at this time. If you wish to specify the Automatic connection type and use custom cryptography settings for IKEv2 you will need to deploy the device tunnel using custom ProfileXML.

IPv6

IPv6 routing when configuring split tunneling for Always On VPN in Intune is not supported.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography Native Support Now in Intune

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Policy Mismatch Error

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing and NAT

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Fragmentation

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Security Configuration

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Only Deployment Considerations

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Only Deployment ConsiderationsRecently I wrote about Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel operation and best practices, explaining its common uses cases and requirements, as well as sharing some detailed information about authentication, deployment recommendations, and best practices. I’m commonly asked if deploying Always On VPN using the device tunnel exclusively, as opposed to using it to supplement the user tunnel, is supported or recommended. I’ll address those topics in detail here.

Device Tunnel Only?

To start, yes, it is possible to deploy Windows 10 Always On VPN using only the device tunnel. In this scenario the administrator will configure full access to the network instead of limited access to domain infrastructure services and management servers.

Is It Recommended?

Generally, no. Remember, the device tunnel was designed with a specific purpose in mind, that being to provide pre-logon network connectivity to support scenarios such as logging on without cached credentials. Typically, the device tunnel is best used for its intended purpose, which is providing supplemental functionality to the user tunnel.

Deployment Considerations

The choice to implement Always On VPN using only the device tunnel is an interesting one. There are some potential advantages to this deployment model, but it is not without some serious limitations. Below I’ve listed some of the advantages and disadvantages to deploying the device tunnel alone for Windows 10 Always On VPN.

Advantages

Using the device tunnel alone does have some compelling advantages over the standard two tunnel (device tunnel/user tunnel) deployment model. Consider the following.

  • Single VPN Connection – Deploying the device tunnel alone means a single VPN connection to configure, deploy, and manage on the client. This also results in less concurrent connections and, importantly, less IP addresses to allocate and provision.
  • Reduced Infrastructure – The device tunnel is authenticated using only the device certificate. This certificate check is performed directly on the Windows Server Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) VPN server, eliminating the requirement to deploy Network Policy Server (NPS) servers for authentication.
  • User Transparency – The device tunnel does not appear in the modern Windows UI. The user will not see this connection if they click on the network icon in the notification area. In addition, they will not see the device tunnel connection in the settings app under Network & Internet > VPN. This prevents casual users from playing with the connection settings, and potentially deleting the connection entirely. It’s not that they can’t delete the device tunnel however, it’s just not as obvious.
  • Simplified Deployment – Deploying the device tunnel is less complicated than deploying the user tunnel. The device tunnel is provisioned once to the device and available to all users. This eliminates the complexity of having to deploy the user tunnel in each individual user’s profile.

Disadvantages

While there are some advantages to using the device tunnel by itself, this configuration is not without some serious limitations. Consider the following.

  • IKEv2 Only – The device tunnel uses the IKEv2 VPN protocol exclusively. It does not support SSTP. While IKEv2 is an excellent protocol in terms of security, it is commonly blocked by firewalls. This will prevent some users from accessing the network remotely depending on their location.
  • Limited OS Support – The device tunnel is only supported on Windows 10 Enterprise edition clients, and those clients must be joined to a domain. Arguably the device tunnel wouldn’t be necessary if the client isn’t domain joined, but some organizations have widely deployed Windows 10 Professional, which would then preclude them from being able to use the device tunnel.
  • Machine Certificate Authentication Only – The device tunnel is authenticated using only the certificate issued to the device. This means anyone who logs on to the device will have full access to the internal network. This may or may not be desirable, depending on individual requirements.
  • No Mutual Authentication – When the device tunnel is authenticated, the server performs authentication of the client, but the client does not authenticate the server. The lack of mutual authentication increases the risk of a man-in-the-middle attack.
  • CRL Checks Not Enforced – By default, RRAS does not perform certificate revocation checking for device tunnel connections. This means simply revoking a certificate won’t prevent the device from connecting. You’ll have to import the client’s device certificate into the Untrusted Certificates certificate store on each VPN server. Fortunately, there is a fix available to address this limitation, but it involves some additional configuration. See Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Certificate Revocation for more details.
  • No Support for Azure Conditional Access – Azure Conditional Access requires EAP authentication. However, the device tunnel does not use EAP but instead uses a simple device certificate check to authenticate the device.
  • No Support for Multifactor Authentication – As the device tunnel is authenticated by the RRAS VPN server directly and authentication requests are not sent to the NPS server, it is not possible to integrate MFA with the device tunnel.
  • Limited Connection Visibility – Since the device tunnel is designed for the device and not the user it does not appear in the list of active network connections in the Windows UI. There is no user-friendly connection status indicator, although the connection can be viewed using the classic network control panel applet (ncpa.cpl).

Summary

The choice to deploy Windows 10 Always On VPN using the device tunnel alone, or in conjunction with the user tunnel, is a design choice that administrators must make based on their individual requirements. Using the device tunnel alone is supported and works but has some serious drawbacks and limitations. The best experience will be found using the device tunnel as it was intended, as an optional component to provide pre-logon connectivity for an existing Always On VPN user tunnel.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Certificate Revocation

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration with Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Does Not Connect Automatically

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Missing in Windows 10 UI

Deleting a Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using PowerShell

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Features and Limitations

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended PrematurelyA Windows Server with the Network Device Enrollment Service (NDES) role can be provisioned on-premises to support certificate deployment for non-domain Windows 10 Always On VPN clients. In addition, the Microsoft Intune Connector must be installed and configured on the NDES server to allow Intune-managed clients to request and receive certificates from the on-premises Certification Authority (CA) server.

Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

When installing the Microsoft Intune Connector, the administrator may encounter a scenario where the setup wizard fails with the following error message.

“Microsoft Intune Connector Setup Wizard ended prematurely because of an error. Your system has not been modified. To install this program at a later time, run Setup Wizard again. Click the Finish button to exit the Setup Wizard.”

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

Cryptographic Service Provider

This error can occur if the NDES server certificate template is configured to use the Key Storage Provider cryptography service provider (CSP). When configuring the certificate template for the NDES server, the Legacy Cryptography Service Provider must be used, as shown here.

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

Additional Information

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXML

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Microsoft Intune

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Microsoft Intune

 

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update AvailableWhen configuring Always On VPN, administrators have the option to enable DNS registration for VPN clients. When this option is set, VPN clients will register the IP address assigned to their VPN interface in the internal DNS. This allows client devices to be managed using their hostname from the internal network whenever they are connected remotely.

DNS Registration

DNS registration is enabled in one of two ways, depending on how Always On VPN client devices are managed.

Intune

When using the native Microsoft Intune UI to manage Always On VPN profiles, DNS registration can be configured by selecting Enabled next to Register IP addresses with internal DNS in the Base VPN settings section.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

ProfileXML

When using custom ProfileXML with PowerShell, SCCM, or Intune, the administrator will define the RegisterDNS element to enable DNS registration.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Known Issues

Some users have reported unexpected behavior when DNS registration is enabled. Specifically, under some circumstances the VPN client will register the IP address of the VPN network interface along with the IP address of its public network interface (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, etc.). However, the VPN client can only be managed using the VPN interface. If the VPN client’s hostname resolves to its public IP address, manage out will fail.

This appears to happen only when Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules are defined in Intune DNS settings, or if the DomainNameInformation element is defined in ProfileXML.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update AvailableAlways On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Resolution

Microsoft recently released fixes for this DNS registration issue for Windows 10. The fix for this issue is included in the following updates.

Windows 10 1803 – KB4507466
Windows 10 1809 – KB4505658
Windows 10 1903 – KB4505903

Additional Configuration

After installing the update, the following registry entry must be defined on each VPN client.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dnscache\Parameters\DisableNRPTForAdapterRegistration DWORD = 1

To enable this setting, open an elevated PowerShell window and run the following command.

New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dnscache\Parameters\’ -Name DisableNRPTForAdapterRegistration -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force

Once complete, restart the client device for the changes to take effect. After validation testing is complete, the registry entry can be deployed to Always On VPN clients using Active Directory group policy preferences or Intune.

Additional Information

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXML

Windows 10 Always On VPN Updates to Improve Connection Reliability

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training Classes

Deploying Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXML

Deploying Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXMLWhen deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN using Microsoft Intune, administrators have two choices for configuring VPN profiles. They can use the native Intune user interface (UI) or create and upload a custom ProfileXML. The method chosen will depend on which features and settings are required.

Microsoft Intune

Intune has an intuitive user interface (UI) that can be used to configure and deploy Always On VPN profiles to Windows 10 clients. Guidance for using the UI to deploy Windows 10 Always On VPN with Microsoft Intune can be found here. However, Intune does not expose all Always On VPN settings to the administrator, which can be problematic.

Missing from Intune

At the time of this writing (updated March 2021), the following Always On VPN settings cannot be configured natively using the Intune UI.

  • Disable class-based default route
  • Exclusion routes
  • LockDown Mode
  • IPv6 routing (broken in Intune)

To implement any of the above features or settings the administrator must create and upload a custom ProfileXML.

ProfileXML

ProfileXML is a node within the VPNv2 Configuration Service Provider (CSP). When configuring Always On VPN using the Intune UI, each setting is configured individually. By contrast, the ProfileXML node includes all Always On VPN settings in a single configuration file. It can be deployed using Intune or PowerShell. Sample ProfileXML files for both user and device tunnels can be downloaded from my GitHub repository.

ProfileXML and Intune

I’ve already documented how to deploy an Always On VPN device tunnel configuration using Intune, so this post will focus on deploying the user tunnel using ProfileXML.

Once ProfileXML has been configured, open the Intune management console and follow the steps below to deploy it using Intune.

Create Profile

1. In the navigation pane click Device Configuration.
2. Click Profiles.
3. Click Create Profile.
4. Enter a descriptive name for the new VPN profile.
5. Select Windows 10 and later from the Platform drop-down list.
6. Select Custom from the Profile type drop-down list.

Custom OMA-URI Settings

1. In the Custom OMA-URI Settings blade click Add.
2. Enter a descriptive name in the Name field (this name will appear in the Windows UI on the client).
3. Enter ./User/Vendor/MSFT/VPNv2/Always%20On%20VPN/ProfileXML in the OMA-URI field. I’ve used Always On VPN as an example here, but you can use any text you like. If it includes spaces they must be escaped using %20, as shown here. Also, don’t forget to include the leading “.“.
4. Select String (XML file) from the Data type drop-down list.
5. Click the folder next to the Select a file field and select your ProfileXML file.
6. Click Ok.

Deploying Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXML

Important Note: The File contents window must show the contents of your ProfileXML. If the contents are unreadable the XML file contains encoding that will not work. If this happens, copy the contents of your ProfileXML to another new text file and upload again.

Assign Profile

Follow the steps below to assign the Always On VPN profile to the appropriate user group.

1. Click Assignments.
2. Click Select groups to include.
3. Select the group that includes the target users.
4. Click Select.
5. Click Save.

Deploying Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXML

Demonstration Video

A demonstration video with guidance for deploying a Windows 10 Always On VPN user tunnel using the native Microsoft Intune UI as well as custom ProfileXML can be found here. The custom ProfileXML guidance starts at 7:52.

Additional Information

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Microsoft Intune

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel using PowerShell

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Security Configuration

Windows 10 Always On VPN LockDown Mode

Windows 10 Always On VPN Scripts and Sample ProfileXML Files on GitHub

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