DirectAccess Troubleshooting with Nmap

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Discovery Script for NmapDirectAccess troubleshooting can be made much easier using open source tools such as Nmap. Nmap can be used to perform many essential network connectivity and configuration checks, including validating network paths, confirming DirectAccess server response, and viewing SSL configuration. Nmap can also be used to ensure that the attack surface of the DirectAccess server is properly minimized. Some tests can be performed using only native Nmap functionality, while others require the use of specialized Nmap scripts that are included with the tool.

Installation

Nmap can be installed on a wide variety of operating systems, including Windows. If you plan to install Nmap on Windows, be sure to also install WinPcap and the Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 Redistributable. Both are included in the download.

Testing External Connectivity

Validating external connectivity is often one of the first DirectAccess troubleshooting steps I take. Confirm that the DirectAccess public hostname resolves to the correct IP address, then run the following Nmap command to validate network connectivity from the Internet to the DirectAccess server.

nmap -n -Pn -p443 <da_public_hostname>

DirectAccess Troubleshooting with Nmap

If the hostname resolves correctly and the network path is complete, the server should respond and Nmap will show the port as open. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean that the DirectAccess server is the device that replied! Due to misconfiguration, it is possible that another server or network device listening on TCP port 443 responded, so this is not a conclusive test.

DirectAccess Server Response

To confirm the DirectAccess server is responding to HTTPS requests and not some other server or device, run the following Nmap command with the ip-https-discover script.

nmap -n -Pn -p443 <da_public_hostname> –script ip-https-discover

If the DirectAccess server responds to the request, Nmap will return the following message:

IP-HTTPS is supported. This indicates that this host supports Microsoft DirectAccess.

DirectAccess Troubleshooting with Nmap

If the port is open but the script does not return this message, it is likely that another server or device is responding on TCP port 443, not the DirectAccess server.

Note: If an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) is configured to perform IP-HTTPS preauthentication, the Nmap IP-HTTPS discovery script will not return this result. This is expected and by design.

SSL Certificate Validation

It is not uncommon for DirectAccess clients to fail to connect via IP-HTTPS because of SSL certificate issues. Specifically, an SSL certificate that is not trusted, is expired, or its subject field does not match the public hostname will prevent DirectAccess clients from connecting. To view the SSL certificate configuration of a DirectAccess server, run the following Nmap command with the ssl-cert script.

nmap -n -Pn -p443 <da_public_hostname> –script ssl-cert

DirectAccess Troubleshooting with Nmap

SSL Cipher Suite Configuration

Occasionally there can be issues with the SSL configuration on the DirectAccess server that prevent some clients from connecting, or result in poor performance. This commonly occurs when administrators perform SSL hardening on the DirectAccess server and remove support for null cipher suites. Null cipher suites should never be disabled on the DirectAccess server. They are important to ensure the highest levels of performance for Windows 8.x and Windows 10 clients. Also, if an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) or load balancer is performing SSL offload, lack of support for null cipher suites will prevent Windows 8.x and Windows 10 clients from connecting. To determine if the DirectAccess server supports null cipher suites, run the following Nmap command with the ssl-enum-ciphers script.

nmap -n -Pn -p443 <da_public_hostname> –script ssl-enum-ciphers

DirectAccess Troubleshooting with Nmap

Attack Surface Audit

If DirectAccess implementation and security best practices are followed, the DirectAccess server will be behind an edge firewall. The only port required to be allowed inbound for DirectAccess is TCP port 443. It is recommended that a full port scan be performed against the DirectAccess server’s public IPv4 address to identify any unnecessary ports that may be open externally. To perform a full port scan, run the following Nmap command.

nmap -n -Pn -p- <da_public_hostname>

Ideally it should look like this.

DirectAccess Troubleshooting with Nmap

If it looks something like this, you’re in serious trouble!

DirectAccess Troubleshooting with Nmap

The DirectAccess server should never be listening for requests other that HTTPS on the public Internet. Exposing services such as SMB (TCP port 445), RDP (TCP port 3389), and others presents a significant security risk. It is recommended that edge firewalls be configured to allow inbound TCP port 443 only. If the DirectAccess server is connected directly to the public Internet (not recommended!) then the Windows Firewall should be configured to restrict access to inbound TCP port 443 only.

Additional Resources

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Discovery Script for Nmap
Planning and Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 on Pluralsight
Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Book
DirectAccess Troubleshooting and Consulting Services

Planning and Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Video Training Course on Pluralsight

Planning and Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016I’m excited to announce my latest video training course, Planning and Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016, is now available on Pluralsight! In this course, I’ll provide a high-level overview of DirectAccess, compare it with VPN, and outline supporting infrastructure requirements. In addition, you’ll learn how to choose the best network topology for a DirectAccess deployment, how to prepare Active Directory and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) for DirectAccess, and how to install and configure DirectAccess in Windows Server 2016 using the latest implementation and security best practices. You’ll also learn how to provision Windows 10 clients and understand the unique requirements for supporting Windows 7.

The course includes the following training modules:

Overview of DirectAccess
Planning for DirectAccess
Configuring DirectAccess with the Getting Started Wizard
Configuring DirectAccess with the Remote Access Setup Wizard
Provisioning DirectAccess Clients
Supporting Windows 7 Clients

Throughout the course, I share valuable knowledge and insight gained from more than 5 years of experience deploying DirectAccess for some of the largest organizations in the world. Pluralsight offers a free trial subscription if you don’t already have one, so watch my DirectAccess video training course today!

Additional Resources

Planning and Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 on Pluralsight
Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error Code 0x800b0109

A Windows 7 or Windows 8.x/10 client may fail to establish a DirectAccess connection using the IP-HTTPS IPv6transition technology. When troubleshooting this issue, running ipconfig.exe show that the media state for the tunnel adapter iphttpsinterface is Media disconnected.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x80090326

Running the Get-NetIPHttpsState PowerShell command on Windows 8.x/10 clients or the netsh interface httpstunnel show interface command on Windows 7 clients returns an error code of 0x800b0109 with an interface status Failed to connect to the IPHTTPS server; waiting to reconnect.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x80090326

Error code 0x800b0109 translates to CERT_E_UNTRUSTEDROOT, indicating the client was unable to establish an IP-HTTPS connection because the certificate presented during the SSL handshake was issued by a certification authority that was not trusted. This commonly occurs when the DirectAccess server is configured with an SSL certificate issued by the internal PKI and DirectAccess clients are provisioned using offline domain join without using the /rootcacerts switch.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x800b0109

To resolve IP-HTTPS error code 0x800b0109, obtain the root certificate for the certificate authority that issued the SSL certificate used for IP-HTTPS and import it in to the DirectAccess client’s Trusted Root Certification Authorities local computer certificate store. Once complete, restart the IP helper service to reinitiate an IP-HTTPS connection.

Additional Information

Provisioning DirectAccess Clients using Windows Offline Domain Join

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error Code 0x90320

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x80090326

A Windows 7 or Windows 8.x/10 client may fail to establish a DirectAccess connection using the IP-HTTPS IPv6 transition technology. When troubleshooting this issue, running ipconfig.exe shows that the media state for the tunnel adapter iphttpsinterface is Media disconnected.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x80090326

Running the Get-NetIPHttpsState PowerShell command on Windows 8.x/10 clients or the netsh interface httpstunnel show interface command on Windows 7 clients returns and error code of 0x80090326, with an interface status Failed to connect to the IPHTTPS server; waiting to reconnect.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x80090326

Error code 0x80090326 translates to SEC_E_ILLEGAL_MESSAGE, indicating the client encountered a fatal error during the SSL handshake.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x80090326

There are a number of things that can cause this to happen. The most common scenario occurs when an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) is improperly configured to perform client certificate authentication for IP-HTTPS connections. Common examples are an incorrect or missing root CA certificate, or null SSL/TLS cipher suites not enabled when supporting Windows 8.x/10 clients.

To troubleshoot DirectAccess IP-HTTPS error 0x80090326, perform a network trace on the DirectAccess client and observe the TLS handshake for clues as to which configuration error is the culprit. If the TLS handshake failure occurs immediately after the client sends a Client Hello, it is likely that the ADC does not have null cipher suites enabled.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x80090326

If the TLS handshake failure occurs after the Server Hello, it is likely that the ADC is configured to perform client certificate authentication incorrectly, or the client does not have a valid certificate.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x80090326

IP-HTTPS error 0x80090326 can also occur if an intermediary device is performing SSL/TLS inspection or otherwise tampering with the TLS request. It can also happen if the edge firewall and/or NAT device is forwarding IP-HTTPS connections to the wrong internal server, or if the firewall itself is responding to the HTTPS connection request. Remember, just because the server is responding on TCP port 443 doesn’t necessarily mean that it is the DirectAccess server responding!

Additional Information

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error Code 0x90320

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

DirectAccess Troubleshooting Consulting Services

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

DirectAccess Troubleshooting and Configuration Training at TechMentor Redmond 2017

DirectAccess and Windows 10 in EducationI’m really excited to announce that I have once again been invited to speak at the upcoming TechMentor event in Redmond, WA August 7-11, 2017! This year I’ll be presenting two important deep-dive training sessions on DirectAccess. The first is a three-hour course on implementing DirectAccess using Windows Server 2016. This session will cover infrastructure prerequisites as well as tips, tricks, and best practices for implementing DirectAccess using Windows Server 2016. In addition I will also be delivering a three-hour deep dive on DirectAccess troubleshooting. In this session, I’ll share valuable insight, tools, and techniques for quickly identifying and resolving many common DirectAccess connectivity and performance issues. In addition I will also be giving a short talk on getting started with Azure site-to-site networking. If you want to take advantage of the power and flexibility that the Azure public cloud has to offer, extending your on-premises datacenter using site-to-site VPN is essential.

Register today using code TMSPK05 and save!

M01: Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016
T03: DirectAccess Troubleshooting Deep Dive
T07: Getting Started with Azure Site-to-Site Networking

TechMentor Redmond 2017

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error Code 0x90320

A Windows 7 or Windows 8.x/10 client may fail to establish a DirectAccess connection using the IP-HTTPS IPv6 transition technology. When troubleshooting this issue, running ipconfig.exe shows that the media state for the tunnel adapter iphttpsinterface is Media disconnected.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error Code 0x90320

Running the Get-NetIPHttpsState PowerShell command on Windows 8.x/10 clients or the netsh interface httpstunnel show interface command on Windows 7 clients returns an error code of 0x90320, with an interface status Failed to connect to the IPHTTPS server; waiting to reconnect.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error Code 0x90320

Error code 0x90320 translates to SEC_I_INCOMPLETE_CREDENTIALS, indicating the client was unable to authenticate to the DirectAccess server during the TLS handshake when establishing the IP-HTTPS IPv6 transition tunnel. This occurs when the DirectAccess server or an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) is configured to perform client certificate authentication for IP-HTTPS connections. The client may fail to authenticate if it does not have a valid certificate issued by the organization’s internal certification authority (CA) or if the DirectAccess server or ADC is configured to perform IP-HTTPS client authentication incorrectly.

To resolve this issue, ensure that a valid certificate is installed on the DirectAccess client. In addition, ensure that the DirectAccess server or ADC is configured to use the correct CA when authenticating clients establishing IP-HTTPS connections.

Additional Information

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Preauthentication 

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Preauthentication using Citrix NetScaler

DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS preauthentication using Citrix NetScaler 

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS preauthentication using F5 BIG-IP 

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Introduction

When installing DirectAccess for the first time, an administrator may encounter the following error message while running the Remote Access Setup wizard.

Error. The client cannot connect to the destination specified in the request. Verify that the service on the destination is running and is accepting requests. Consult the logs and documentation for the WS-Management service running on the destination, most commonly IIS or WinRM. If the destination is the WinRM service, run the following command on the destination to analyze and configure the WinRM service: “winrm quickconfig”.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Troubleshooting

Running winrm quickconfig in an elevated PowerShell command window returns the following message.

WinRM service is already running on this machine.
WinRM is already set up for remote management on this computer.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Clicking Check prerequisites again does not resolve the error message.

Post-Installation Errors

If DirectAccess is already installed and working properly, an administrator may encounter a scenario in which the operations status page displays nothing, yet remote DirectAccess clients are connected and able to access corporate resources without issue.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

In addition, clicking Edit on Step 2 in the Remote Access Management console and choosing Network Adapters produces an error message stating “An error occurred when validating interfaces”. You can select a network adapter from the drop-down list, but the Next and Finish buttons are grayed out.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Conflicts with WinRM

These errors are commonly caused by a conflict with WinRM Service settings enforced via Active Directory group policy. To confirm this, open an elevated PowerShell command window run the winrm enumerate winrm/config/listener command. The listener configuration source will be listed as GPO.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

The administrator will also find the presence of the following registry keys on the DirectAccess server.

HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\AllowAutoConfig
HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\IPv4Filter
HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\IPv6Filter

Resolution

To resolve this conflict, prevent the GPO with this setting from being applied to the DirectAccess server(s). You will find this GPO setting in the Group Policy Management console (GPMC) by navigating to Computer Configuration -> Policies -> Administrative Templates -> Windows Components -> Windows Remote Management (WinRM) -> WinRM Service and setting the state of Allow remote server management through WinRM to Not configured.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Additional Resources

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Education

VIDEO – DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Action 

BOOK – Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

When troubleshooting DirectAccess client connectivity issues, you may encounter a scenario where clients are unable to connect using the IP-HTTPS IPv6 transition technology. Running ipconfig shows that the tunnel adapter IPHTTPSInterface media state is Media disconnected.

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

Running the Get-NetIpHttpsState PowerShell command shows that the LastErrorCode is 0x2af9 (WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND) and the InterfaceStatus is Failed to connect to the IPHTTPS server; waiting to reconnect.

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

The 0x2af9 error differs slightly from the more common 0x274c IP-HTTPS connection time out error (WSAETIMEDOUT). In this scenario the DirectAccess client can successfully resolve the DirectAccess public hostname to an IPv4 address, and if ICMP echo requests are allowed on the DirectAccess server’s public IPv4 address it will respond to ping.

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

The DirectAccess client is also able to establish a TCP connection to the DirectAccess server using the Test-NetConnection PowerShell command.

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

So, why is the IP-HTTPS interface unable to establish a transition tunnel connection when the DirectAccess server’s public hostname resolves correctly via DNS and the client can establish a TCP connection on port 443? Commonly this is caused by proxy server settings configured in the web browser on the DirectAccess client computer. Disabling the proxy server in the client’s web browser should restore DirectAccess client connectivity over IP-HTTPS.

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

If clearing the proxy server settings in the client machine’s web browser still does not restore IP-HTTPS connectivity, it may be that a proxy server is also configured for winhttp. You can confirm this by opening an elevated PowerShell command window and running the netsh winhttp show proxy command.

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

To clear the winhttp proxy server settings run the netsh winhttp reset proxy command.

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

Additional Resources

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Preauthentication

DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

DirectAccess SSL Offload using F5 BIG-IP

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with F5 BIG-IP

DirectAccess and Multi-SAN SSL Certificates for IP-HTTPS

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Book

 

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

Introduction

DirectAccess is an IPv6 only solution, at least from the perspective of the client. When the DirectAccess client is remote, it communicates with the DirectAccess server using IPv6 exclusively. IPv6 transition technologies are used to enable this connectivity when the DirectAccess server and/or client are on the pubic IPv4 Internet.

IP-HTTPS

One of the IPv6 transition technologies used by DirectAccess is IP-HTTPS. With IP-HTTPS, IPv6 traffic is encapsulated in HTTP and delivered to the DirectAccess server using IPv4. IP-HTTPS is used exclusively when the DirectAccess server is located behind an edge firewall performing network address translation.

SSL Certificate

To support IP-HTTPS, an SSL certificate is installed on each DirectAccess server. The SSL certificate is commonly issued by a public certification authority, but it can also be issued by an internal PKI. The SSL certificate used for IP-HTTPS can and does expire, and when it does it will prevent any DirectAccess connection from being established using this transition technology.

Troubleshooting

When troubleshooting DirectAccess connectivity via IP-HTTPS, the first thing the administrator will notice is that the media state for the DirectAccess client’s IP-HTTPS tunnel adapter interface is shown as disconnected.

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

In addition, the Get-NetIPHttpsState PowerShell command returns an error code 0x800b0101 indicating Failed to connect to the IP-HTTPS server; waiting to reconnect.

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

Err.exe translates this error to CERT_E_EXPIRED, indicating that the SSL certificate is no longer valid.

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

Viewing the IP-HTTPS SSL certificate is not possible using a web browser. Instead, use Nmap and the ssl-cert script to view the certificate.

nmap.exe -n -Pn -p443 [FQDN] –script ssl-cert

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

In the Operations Status window of the Remote Access Management console on the DirectAccess server, the IP-HTTPS status is listed as Critical. Details show IP-HTTPS not working properly, with an error stating the IP-HTTPS certificate is not valid, and clearly indicating that the certificate is expired.

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

The IP-HTTPS status can also be viewed at the command line by issuing the following command in an elevated PowerShell command window.

Get-RemoteAccessHealth | Where-Object Component -eq IP-Https | Format-List

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

Updating the Certificate

Simply renewing the SSL certificate is not sufficient to restore IP-HTTPS connectivity for remote DirectAccess clients. The DirectAccess configuration must also be updated to use the new certificate. In the Remote Access Management console, highlight DirectAccess and VPN under Configuration and then click Edit on Step 2 (for load-balanced or multisite DirectAccess deployments, first highlight the individual server and then click Configure Server Settings). Click Network Adapters, click Browse, and then select the new SSL certificate.

DirectAccess Expired IP-HTTPS Certificate and Error 0x800b0101

Click Ok, Next, and then Finish twice and Apply. Repeat these steps for each server in the load-balanced cluster, and for all servers in all entry points in the enterprise.

Alternatively, the IP-HTTPS certificate can be updated in the DirectAccess configuration by opening an elevated PowerShell command window and entering the following commands.

$cert = Get-ChildItem -Path cert:\localmachine\my | Where-Object Thumbprint -eq [cert_thumbprint]
Set-RemoteAccess -SslCertificate $cert -Verbose

For example…

$cert = Get-ChildItem -Path cert:\localmachine\my | Where-Object Thumbprint -eq 2BFD1BC5805EBBF8ACB584DA025AD75B341A8B33
Set-RemoteAccess -SslCertificate $cert -Verbose


Important Note: Be sure to execute these commands on each DirectAccess server in the load-balanced cluster, and for all servers in all entry points in the enterprise.


Self-Signed Certificates

When DirectAccess is deployed using the Getting Started Wizard (GSW), also known as a “simplified deployment“, a self-signed certificate is used for IP-HTTPS. By default, this certificate expires 5 years after it is created. The expiration of a self-signed certificate presentsa unique challenge. Although the self-signed certificate can’t be renewed, it can be re-created or cloned using the New-SelfSignedCertificate PowerShell command. However, DirectAccess clients will not trust this new certificate until they receive the updated client settings via group policy. DirectAccess clients outside the network will not be able to establish IP-HTTPS connections until they receive these new policies. When they attempt to connect to the DirectAccess server without first updating group policy, the IP-HTTPS status will indicate an error code 0x800b0109 which translates to CERT_E_UNTRUSTEDROOT.

If the expired self-signed certificate is replaced with another self-signed certificate (not recommended), DirectAccess clients will have to come back to the internal network or connect remotely via client-based VPN to update group policy and receive the new DirectAccess client settings. A better alternative is to replace the expired self-signed certificate with a public SSL certificate that matches the existing public hostname. This will allow remote clients to reestablish DirectAccess connectivity without the need to udpate group policy first.

Summary

Certificate expiration must be monitored closely to ensure the highest level of availability for the DirectAccess remote access solution. Certificate auto enrollment can be leveraged to ensure that IPsec certificates are automatically renewed prior to expiration. However, the IP-HTTPS certificate must be renewed manually and requires additional configuration after it has been updated.

Additional Resources

DirectAccess Computer Certificate Auto Enrollment

DirectAccess and Multi-SAN SSL Certificates for IP-HTTPS

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 book

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Book Now Available

I am very excited to announce that my new DirectAccess book, Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 from Apress media, is now shipping! The book is available on popular online sites like Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, Springer.com, Apress.com, and others. The book is also available in electronic formats such as Amazon Kindle and Barnes & Noble Nook, as well as a variety of subscription formats including Safari, Books24x7, and SpringerLink.

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

This book contains detailed and prescriptive guidance for the planning, design, implementation, and support of a DirectAccess remote access solution on Windows Server 2016. It also includes valuable insight, tips, tricks, and best practice recommendations gained from my many years of deploying DirectAccess for some of the largest organizations in the world.

Current DirectAccess administrators will also find this book helpful, as the majority of content is still applicable to DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2. In addition, the book also includes essential information on the design and deployment of highly available and geographically redundant DirectAccess deployments.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess can be a daunting task, so I’ve dedicated an entire chapter in the book to this topic. For those responsible for the maintenance and support of DirectAccess in their organization, this chapter alone will be worth the investment.

Be sure to order your copy today!

%d bloggers like this: