Always On VPN ECDSA SSL Certificate Request for SSTP

As I’ve discussed previously, it is strongly recommended that the TLS certificate used for SSTP be signed using the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA). ECDSA provides better security and performance compared to RSA certificates for Windows 10 Always On VPN connections using SSTP. See my previous post Always On VPN SSL Certificate Requirements for SSTP for more information.

Certificate Signing Request

To generate a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) using ECDSA to send to a public Certification Authority (CA), open the local computer certificate store (certlm.msc) on any Windows server or client and follow the steps below.

  1. Expand Certificates – Local Computer.
  2. Right-click the Personal folder and choose All Tasks > Advanced Operations > Create Custom Request.
  3. Click Next.
  4. Click Next.
  5. From the Template drop-down list choose (No template) CNG key.
  6. Click Next.
  7. Click Details.

    Always On VPN ECDSA SSL Certificate Request for SSTP

  8. Click Properties.
  9. On the General tab enter a name in the Friendly name field.
  10. Click on the Subject tab.
    1. In the Subject name section, from the Type drop-down list choose Common name.
    2. In the Value field enter the VPN server’s public hostname and click Add.
    3. In the Alternative name section, from the Type drop-down list choose DNS.
    4. In the Value field enter the VPN server’s public hostname and click Add.

      Always On VPN ECDSA SSL Certificate Request for SSTP

  11. Click on the Private Key tab.
    1. Expand Cryptographic Service Provider.
    2. Uncheck RSA,Microsoft Software Key Storage Provider.
    3. Check ECDSA_P256,Microsoft Software Key Storage Provider.

      Always On VPN ECDSA SSL Certificate Request for SSTP

  12. Click Ok.
  13. Click Next.
  14. Enter a name for the file in the File Name field.
  15. Click Finish.

Submit the Request

Once complete, submit the CSR for signing to your favorite public CA. Based on my experience, some CAs are easier to obtain ECDSA-signed certificates than other. Today, Digicert seems to be one of the better public CAs for obtaining EC TLS certificates.

Complete the Request

Once the CA has issued the certificate, import the certificate in to the local computer certificate store on the same client or server where the original CSR was created. The certificate can then be exported and imported on additional VPN servers, if required.

Additional Information

Always On VPN SSL Certificate Requirements for SSTP

Always On VPN Protocol Recommendations for RRAS

 

Always On VPN Multisite with Azure Traffic Manager

Always On VPN Multisite with Azure Traffic ManagerEliminating single points of failure is crucial to ensuring the highest levels of availability for any remote access solution. For Windows 10 Always On VPN deployments, the Windows Server 2016 Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) and Network Policy Server (NPS) servers can be load balanced to provide redundancy and high availability within a single datacenter. Additional RRAS and NPS servers can be deployed in another datacenter or in Azure to provide geographic redundancy if one datacenter is unavailable, or to provide access to VPN servers based on the location of the client.

Multisite Always On VPN

Unlike DirectAccess, Windows 10 Always On VPN does not natively include support for multisite. However, enabling multisite geographic redundancy can be implemented using Azure Traffic Manager.

Azure Traffic Manager

Traffic Manager is part of Microsoft’s Azure public cloud solution. It provides Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) functionality by resolving DNS queries for the VPN public hostname to an IP address of the most optimal VPN server.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Using Azure Traffic manager has some benefits, but it is not with some drawbacks.

Advantages – Azure Traffic Manager is easy to configure and use. It requires no proprietary hardware to procure, manage, and support.

Disadvantages – Azure Traffic Manager offers only limited health check options. Azure Traffic Manager’s HTTPS health check only accepts HTTP 200 OK responses as valid. Most TLS-based VPNs will respond with an HTTP 401 Unauthorized, which Azure Traffic Manager considers “degraded”. The only option for endpoint monitoring is a simple TCP connection to port 443, which is a less accurate indicator of endpoint availability.

Note: This scenario assumes that RRAS with Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) or another third-party TLS-based VPN server is in use. If IKEv2 is to be supported exclusively, it will still be necessary to publish an HTTP or HTTPS-based service for Azure Traffic Manager to monitor site availability.

Traffic Routing Methods

Azure Traffic Manager provide four different methods for routing traffic.

Priority – Select this option to provide active/passive failover. A primary VPN server is defined to which all traffic is routed. If the primary server is unavailable, traffic will be routed to another backup server.

Weighted – Select this option to provide active/active failover. Traffic is routed to all VPN servers equally, or unequally if desired. The administrator defines the percentage of traffic routed to each server.

Performance – Select this option to route traffic to the VPN server with the lowest latency. This ensures VPN clients connect to the server that responds the quickest.

Geographic – Select this option to route traffic to a VPN server based on the VPN client’s physical location.

Configure Azure Traffic Manager

Open the Azure management portal and follow the steps below to configure Azure Traffic Manager for multisite Windows 10 Always On VPN.

Create a Traffic Manager Resource

  1. Click Create a resource.
  2. Click Networking.
  3. Click Traffic Manager profile.

Create a Traffic Manager Profile

  1. Enter a unique name for the Traffic Manager profile.
  2. Select an appropriate routing method (described above).
  3. Select a subscription.
  4. Create or select a resource group.
  5. Select a resource group location.
  6. Click Create.

Always On VPN Multisite with Azure Traffic Manager

Important Note: The name of the Traffic Manager profile cannot be used by VPN clients to connect to the VPN server, since a TLS certificate cannot be obtained for the trafficmanager.net domain. Instead, create a CNAME DNS record that points to the Traffic Manager FQDN and ensure that name matches the subject or a Subject Alternative Name (SAN) entry on the VPN server’s TLS and/or IKEv2 certificates.

Endpoint Monitoring

Open the newly created Traffic Manager profile and perform the following tasks to enable endpoint monitoring.

  1. Click Configuration.
  2. Select TCP from the Protocol drop-down list.
  3. Enter 443 in the Port field.
  4. Update any additional settings, such as DNS TTL, probing interval, tolerated number of failures, and probe timeout, as required.
  5. Click Save.

Always On VPN Multisite with Azure Traffic Manager

Endpoint Configuration

Follow the steps below to add VPN endpoints to the Traffic Manager profile.

  1. Click Endpoints.
  2. Click Add.
  3. Select External Endpoint from the Type drop-down list.
  4. Enter a descriptive name for the endpoint.
  5. Enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) or the IP address of the first VPN server.
  6. Select a geography from the Location drop-down list.
  7. Click OK.
  8. Repeat the steps above for any additional datacenters where VPN servers are deployed.

Always On VPN Multisite with Azure Traffic Manager

Summary

Implementing multisite by placing VPN servers is multiple physical locations will ensure that VPN connections can be established successfully even when an entire datacenter is offline. In addition, active/active scenarios can be implemented, where VPN client connections can be routed to the most optimal datacenter based on a variety of parameters, including current server load or the client’s current location.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training Classes

Always On VPN Hands On Training Classes Coming to Dallas and San Francisco

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training Classes for 2018Two more dates for my popular three-day Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training classes have been added to the schedule for 2018! Classes are now forming in Dallas, October 23-25 and in San Francisco, November 13-15, 2018. These training classes will cover all aspects of designing, implementing, and supporting an Always On VPN solution in the enterprise. The following topics will be covered in detail.

  • Windows 10 Always On VPN overview
  • Introduction to CSP
  • Infrastructure requirements
  • Planning and design considerations
  • Installation, configuration, and client provisioning

Advanced topics will include…

  • Redundancy and high availability+
  • Cloud-based deployments
  • Third-party VPN infrastructure and client support
  • Multifactor authentication
  • Always On VPN migration strategies

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training Classes for 2018

Register Today

Reservations are being accepted now! The cost for this 3-day hands-on training class is $4995.00 USD. Space is limited, so don’t wait to register! Fill out the form below to save your seat now.

Group discounts are available! Private training sessions for large organizations are also available upon request.

Always On VPN Routing Configuration

Windows 10 Always On VPN Routing ConfigurationWhen configuring Windows 10 Always On VPN, the administrator must choose between force tunneling and split tunneling. When force tunneling is used, all network traffic from the VPN client is routed over the VPN tunnel. When split tunneling is used, the VPN client must be configured with the necessary IP routes to establish remote network connectivity to on-premises resources. How those routes are established is a common source of confusion. This article provides guidance for properly configuring routing for Always On VPN clients.

Class Based Routing

IP addresses are assigned to Windows 10 Always On VPN clients from either a static pool of addresses configured by the administrator or by DHCP. If split tunneling is enabled, the client will also be assigned a class-based route that is derived from the IP address assigned to it by the VPN server, by default. If the client is assigned an IP address from the Class A network, a corresponding /8 prefix is used. For Class B networks a /16 prefix is defined, and for Class C networks a /24 prefix is used.

As an example, if the VPN server assigns the client an IP address of 10.21.12.103, a route to the 10.0.0.0/8 network is added to the client’s routing table, as shown here.

Windows 10 Always On VPN Routing Configuration

Complex Networks

This default class-based route is of limited use though, and is only applicable when the internal network is simple and VPN clients are assigned IP addresses from the same subnet class. In the example above, if the entire internal network resides in the 10.0.0.0/8 Class A address space, all resources will be reachable by the VPN client. Any resources in the Class B or Class C subnet ranges would be unreachable without additional configuration.

Route Configuration

To configure routing for Windows 10 Always On VPN clients, first disable the default class-based route by defining the following element in ProfileXML as shown here.

<VPNProfile>
   <NativeProfile>
      <DisableClassBasedDefaultRoute>true</DisableClassBasedDefaultRoute>
   </NativeProfile>
</VPNProfile>

Next, enable specific routes as needed by defining the following element(s) in ProfileXML. The example below defines routes for all private RFC 1918 networks.

<VPNProfile>
   <Route>
      <Address>10.0.0.0</Address>
      <PrefixSize>8</PrefixSize>
   </Route>
   <Route>
      <Address>172.16.0.0</Address>
      <PrefixSize>12</PrefixSize>
   </Route>
   <Route>
      <Address>192.168.0.0</Address>
      <PrefixSize>16</PrefixSize>
   </Route>
</VPNProfile>

Once implemented, the VPN client’s routing table will appear as shown here.

Windows 10 Always On VPN Routing Configuration

Summary

Proper routing is crucial for ensuring full network connectivity and access to internal resources for Windows 10 Always On VPN clients. When split tunneling is employed, avoid using the default class-based route and instead define specific routes using ProfileXML as required.

Additional Information

Always On VPN Client DNS Server Configuration

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for IKEv2

Windows 10 Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for SSTP

Always On VPN SSL Certificate Requirements for SSTP

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for SSTPThe Windows Server 2016 Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) is commonly deployed as a VPN server for Windows 10 Always On VPN deployments. Using RRAS, Always On VPN administrators can take advantage of Microsoft’s proprietary Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) VPN protocol. SSTP is a Transport Layer Security (TLS) based VPN protocol that uses HTTPS over the standard TCP port 443 to encapsulate and encrypt communication between the Always On VPN client and the RRAS VPN server. SSTP is a firewall-friendly protocol that ensures ubiquitous remote network connectivity. Although IKEv2 is the protocol of choice when the highest level of security is required for VPN connections, SSTP can still provide very good security when implementation best practices are followed.

SSTP Certificate

Since SSTP uses HTTPS for transport, a common SSL certificate must be installed in the Local Computer/Personal/Certificates store on the RRAS VPN server. The certificate must include the Server Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) at a minimum. Often SSL certificates include both the Server Authentication and Client Authentication EKUs, but the Client Authentication EKU is not strictly required. The subject name on the certificate, or at least one of the Subject Alternative Name entries, must match the public hostname used by VPN clients to connect to the VPN server. Multi-SAN (sometimes referred to as UC certificates) and wildcard certificates are supported.

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for SSTP

Certification Authority

It is recommended that the SSL certificate used for SSTP be issued by a public Certification Authority (CA). Public CAs typically have their Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) hosted on robust, highly available infrastructure. This reduces the chance of failed VPN connection attempts caused by the CRL being offline or unreachable.

Using an SSL certificate issued by an internal, private CA is supported if the CRL for the internal PKI is publicly available.

Key Type

RSA is the most common key type used for SSL certificates. However, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) keys offer better security and performance, so it is recommended that the SSTP SSL certificate be created using an ECC key instead.

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for SSTP

To use an ECC key, be sure to specify the use of a Cryptographic Next Generation (CNG) key and select the ECDSA_P256 Microsoft Software Key Storage Provider (CSP) (or greater) when creating the Certificate Signing Request (CSR) for the SSTP SSL certificate.

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for SSTP

Most public CAs will support certificate signing using ECC and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA). If yours does not, find a better CA. 😉

Forward Secrecy

Forward secrecy (sometimes referred to as perfect forward secrecy, or PFS) ensures that session keys can’t be compromised even if the server’s private key is compromised. Using forward secrecy for SSTP is crucial to ensuring the highest levels of security for VPN connections.

To enforce the use of forward secrecy, the TLS configuration on the VPN server should be prioritized to prefer cipher suites with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (ECDHE) key exchange.

Authenticated Encryption

Authenticated encryption (AE) and authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) is a form of encryption that provides better data protection and integrity compared to older block or stream ciphers such as CBC or RC4.

To enforce the use of authenticated encryption, the TLS configuration on the VPN server should be prioritized to prefer cipher suites that support Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) block ciphers.

Important Note: In Windows Server 2016, GCM ciphers can be used with both RSA and ECC certificates. However, in Windows Server 2012 R2 GCM ciphers can only be used when an ECC certificate is used.

SSL Offload

Offloading SSL to a load balancer or application delivery controller (ADC) can be enabled to improve scalability and performance for SSTP VPN connections. I will cover SSL offload for SSTP in detail in a future post.

Summary

SSTP can provide good security for VPN connections when implementation and security best practices are followed. For optimum security, use an SSL certificate with an EC key and optimize the TLS configuration to use forward secrecy and authenticated cipher suites.

Additional Information

Always On VPN ECDSA SSL Certificate Request for SSTP

Always On VPN and Windows Server Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS)

Always On VPN Protocol Recommendations for Windows Server RRAS

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for IKEv2

3 Important Advantages of Always On VPN over DirectAccess

Microsoft SSTP Specification on MSDN

Always On VPN at TechMentor Redmond 2018

Always On VPN at TechMentor Redmond 2018I’m pleased to announce I’ll be presenting at the upcoming TechMentor 2018 conference is Redmond, Washington. It will be held on the Microsoft campus August 6-10, 2018. I’ll be giving a talk on Windows 10 Always On VPN for DirectAccess administrators. During this session you’ll learn about the features and capabilities in Always On VPN, how to map existing DirectAccess functionality to Always On VPN, and how to provision clients using Microsoft Intune. I will also share implementation and security best practices, along with DirectAccess to Always On VPN migration guidance.

Always On VPN at TechMentor Redmond 2018

Register today with code RDSPK10 and save $500.00! I hope you’ll join me in Redmond this year for this exceptional learning opportunity. TechMentor provides in-depth, immediately useable education that will absolutely make your life easier!

DirectAccess Selective Tunneling

DirectAccess Selective TunnelingDirectAccess administrators, and network administrators in general, are likely familiar with the terms “split tunneling” and “force tunneling”. They dictate how traffic is handled when a DirectAccess (or VPN) connection is established by a client. Split tunneling routes only traffic destined for the internal network over the DirectAccess connection; all other traffic is routed directly over the Internet. Force tunneling routes all traffic over the DirectAccess connection.

Force Tunneling

DirectAccess uses split tunneling by default. Optionally, it can be configured to use force tunneling if required. Force tunneling is commonly enabled when DirectAccess administrators want to inspect and monitor Internet traffic from field-based clients.

Note: One-time password user authentication is not supported when force tunneling is enabled. Details here.

Drawbacks

Force tunneling is not without its drawbacks. It requires that an on-premises proxy server be used by DirectAccess clients to access the Internet, in most cases. In addition, the user experience is often poor when force tunneling is enabled. This is caused by routing Internet traffic, which is commonly encrypted, over an already encrypted connection. The added protocol overhead caused by double encryption (triple encryption if you are using Windows 7!) along with using a sub-optimal network path increases latency and can degrade performance significantly. Also, location-based services typically fail to work correctly.

Selective Tunneling

“Selective Tunneling” is a term that I commonly use to describe a configuration where only one or a few specific public resources are tunneled over the DirectAccess connection. A common use case is where access to a cloud-based application is restricted to the IP address of a corporate proxy or firewall.

Using the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) and taking advantage of DirectAccess and its requirement for IPv6, DirectAccess administrators can choose to selectively route requests for public hosts or domains over the DirectAccess connection. The process involves defining the public Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) as “internal” in the DirectAccess configuration and then assigning an on-premises proxy server for DirectAccess clients to use to access that namespace.

Enable Selective Tunneling

While some of the selective tunneling configuration can be performed using the Remote Access Management console, some of it can only be done using PowerShell. For this reason, I prefer to do everything in PowerShell to streamline the process.

Run the following PowerShell commands on the DirectAccess server to enable selective tunneling for the “.example.com” domain.

$namespace = “.example.com” # include preceding dot for namespace, omit for individual host
$dnsserver = Get-ItemPropertyValue –Path HKLM:\\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\RaMgmtSvc\Config\Parameters -Name DnsServers

Add-DAClientDnsConfiguration -DnsSuffix $namespace -DnsIpAddress $dnsserver -PassThru

$gpo = (Get-RemoteAccess).ClientGpoName
$gpo = $gpo.Split(‘\’)[1]
$proxy = “proxy.corp.example.net:8080” # this is the FQDN and port for the internal proxy server
$rule = (Get-DnsClientNrptRule -GpoName $gpo | Where-Object Namespace -eq $namespace | Select-Object -ExpandProperty “Name”)

Set-DnsClientNrptRule -DAEnable $true -DAProxyServerName $proxy -DAProxyType “UseProxyName” -Name $rule -GpoName $gpo

If Windows 7 client support has been enabled, run the following PowerShell commands on the DirectAccess server. If multisite is enabled, run these commands on one DirectAccess server in each entry point.

$downlevelgpo = (Get-RemoteAccess).DownlevelGpoName
$downlevelgpo = $downlevelgpo.Split(‘\’)[1]
$proxy = “proxy.corp.example.net:8080” # this is the FQDN and port for the internal proxy server
$downlevelrule = (Get-DnsClientNrptRule -GpoName $downlevelgpo | Where-Object Namespace -eq $namespace | Select-Object -ExpandProperty “Name”)

Set-DnsClientNrptRule -DAEnable $true -DAProxyServerName $proxy -DAProxyType “UseProxyName” -Name $downlevelrule -GpoName $downlevelgpo

To remove a namespace from the NRPT, run the following PowerShell command.

Remove-DAClientDnsConfiguration -DnsSuffix $namespace

Caveats

While selective tunneling works well for the most part, the real drawback is that only Microsoft browsers (Internet Explorer and Edge) are supported. Web sites configured for selective tunneling will not be reachable when using Chrome, Firefox, or any other third-party web browser. In addition, many web sites deliver content using more than one FQDN, which may cause some web pages to load improperly.

Additional Resources

DirectAccess Force Tunneling and Proxy Server Configuration

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for IKEv2

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for IKEv2Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) is one of the VPN protocols supported for Windows 10 Always On VPN deployments. When the VPN server is Windows Server 2016 with the Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) role configured, a computer certificate must first be installed on the server to support IKEv2. There are some unique requirements for this certificate, specifically regarding the subject name and Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) configuration. In addition, some deployment scenarios may require a certificate to be provisioned to the client to support IKEv2 VPN connections.

Server Certificate

The IKEv2 certificate on the VPN server must be issued by the organization’s internal private certification authority (CA). It must be installed in the Local Computer/Personal certificate store on the VPN server. The subject name on the certificate must match the public hostname used by VPN clients to connect to the server, not the server’s hostname. For example, if the VPN server’s hostname is VPN1 and the public FQDN is vpn.example.net, the subject field of the certificate must include vpn.example.net, as shown here.

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for IKEv2

In addition, the certificate must include the Server Authentication EKU (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1). Optionally, but recommended, the certificate should also include the IP security IKE intermediate EKU (1.3.6.1.5.5.8.2.2).

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for IKEv2

Client Certificate

Client certificate requirements vary depending on the type of VPN tunnel and authentication method being used.

User Tunnel

No certificates are required on the client to support IKEv2 when using MSCHAPv2, EAP-MSCHAPv2, or Protected EAP (PEAP) with MSCHAPv2. However, if the option to verify the server’s identity by validating the certificate is selected when using PEAP, the client must have the certificates for the root CA and any subordinate CAs installed in its Trusted Root Certification and Intermediate Certificate Authorities certificate stores, respectively.

User Tunnel with Certificate Authentication

Using certificate authentication for the user tunnel is the recommended best practice for Always On VPN deployments. A client certificate must be installed in the Current User/Personal store to support PEAP authentication with smart card or certificate authentication. The certificate must include the Client Authentication EKU (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.2).

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for IKEv2

Device Tunnel

A computer certificate must be installed in the Local Computer/Personal certificate store to support IKEv2 machine certificate authentication and the Always On VPN device tunnel. The certificate must include the Client Authentication EKU (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.2).

Always On VPN Certificate Requirements for IKEv2

More information about configuring the Always On VPN device tunnel can be found here.

Additional Information

Always On VPN with Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Certificates

Always On VPN Protocol Recommendations for Windows Server 2016 RRAS

Always On VPN and Windows Server RRAS

Always On VPN Training

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force TunnelingDirectAccess employs a split tunneling network model by default. In this configuration, only network traffic destined for the internal network (as defined by the administrator) is tunneled over the DirectAccess connection. All other network traffic is routed directly over the Internet.

Force Tunneling Use Cases

For a variety of reasons, administrators may want to configure DirectAccess to use force tunneling, requiring all client traffic be routed over the DirectAccess connection, including public Internet traffic. Commonly this is done to ensure that all traffic is logged and, importantly, screened and filtered to enforce acceptable use policy and to prevent malware infection and potential loss of data.

DirectAccess and Force Tunneling

Enabling force tunneling for DirectAccess is not trivial, as it requires an on-premises proxy server to ensure proper functionality when accessing resources on the public Internet. You can find detailed guidance for configuring DirectAccess to use force tunneling here.

NetMotion Mobility and Force Tunneling

With NetMotion Mobility, force tunneling is enabled by default. So, if split tunneling is desired, it must be explicitly configured. Follow the steps below to create a split tunneling policy.

Create a Rule Set

  1. Open the NetMotion Mobility management console and click Policy > Policy Management.
  2. Click New.
  3. Enter a descriptive name for the new rule set.
  4. Click Ok.

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling

Create a Rule

  1. Click New.
  2. Enter a descriptive name for the new rule.
  3. Click Ok.

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling

Define an Action

  1. Click on the Actions tab.
  2. In the Addresses section check the box next to Allow network traffic for address(es)/port(s).NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling
  3. In the Base section select Pass through all network traffic.NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling

Define the Internal Network

  1. In the Policy rule definition section click the address(es)/port(s) link.NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling
  2. Click Add.
  3. In the Remote Address column select Network Address.
  4. Enter the network prefix and prefix length that corresponds to the internal network.
  5. Click Ok.
  6. Repeat the steps above to add any additional internal subnets, as required.
  7. Click Ok.
  8. Click Save.
  9. Click Save.NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling

Assign the Policy

  1. Click on the Subscribers tab.
  2. Choose a group to assign the policy to. This can be users, groups, devices, etc.NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling
  3. Click Subscribe.
  4. Select the Split Tunneling policy.
  5. Click Ok.NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Split vs. Force Tunneling

Validation Testing

With split tunneling enabled the NetMotion Mobility client will be able to securely access internal network resources over the Mobility connection, but all other traffic will be routed over the public Internet. To confirm this, first very that internal resources are reachable. Next, open your favor Internet search engine and enter “IP”. The IP address you see should be the IP address of the client, not the on-premises gateway.

Summary

I’ve never been a big fan of force tunneling with DirectAccess. Not only is it difficult to implement (and requires additional infrastructure!) the user experience is generally poor. There are usability issues especially with captive portals for Wi-Fi, and performance often suffers. In addition, enabling force tunneling precludes the use of strong user authentication with one-time passwords.

With NetMotion Mobility, force tunneling is on by default, so no configuration changes are required. The user experience is improved as NetMotion Mobility intelligently recognizes captive portals. Performance is much better too. In addition, NetMotion Mobility is more flexible, allowing for the use of OTP authentication with force tunneling. Also, with NetMotion Mobility force tunneling is not a global setting. You can selectively apply force tunneling to users and/or groups as necessary.

Additional Information

NetMotion Mobility as an Alternative for Microsoft DirectAccess

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection

Enabling Secure Remote Administration for the NetMotion Mobility Console

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

 

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network DetectionDirectAccess clients use the Network Location Server (NLS) for trusted network detection. If the NLS can be reached, the client will assume it is on the internal network and the DirectAccess connection will not be made. If the NLS cannot be reached, the client will assume it is outside the network and it will then attempt to establish a connection to the DirectAccess server.

Critical Infrastructure

DirectAccess NLS availability and reachability is crucial to ensuring uninterrupted operation for DirectAccess clients on the internal network. If the NLS is offline or unreachable for any reason, DirectAccess clients on the internal network will be unable to access internal resources by name until the NLS is once again available. To ensure reliable NLS operation and to avoid potential disruption, the NLS should be highly available and geographically redundant. Close attention must be paid to NLS SSL certificate expiration dates too.

NetMotion Mobility

NetMotion Mobility does not require additional infrastructure for inside/outside detection as DirectAccess does. Instead, Mobility clients determine their network location by the IP address of the Mobility server they are connected to.

Unlike DirectAccess, NetMotion Mobility clients will connect to the Mobility server whenever it is reachable, even if they are on the internal network. There are some advantages to this, but if this behavior isn’t desired, a policy can be created that effectively replicates DirectAccess client behavior by bypassing the Mobility client when the client is on the internal network.

Configuring Trusted Network Detection

Follow the steps below to create a policy to enable trusted network detection for NetMotion Mobility clients.

Create a Rule Set

  1. From the drop-down menu in the NetMotion Mobility management console click Policy and then Policy Management.
  2. Click New.
  3. Enter a descriptive name for the new rule set.
  4. Click Ok.

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection

Create a Rule

  1. Click New.
  2. Enter a descriptive name for the new rule.
  3. Click Ok.

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection

Define a Condition

  1. Click on the Conditions tab.
  2. In the Addresses section check the box next to When the Mobility server address is address.
    NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection
  3. In the Policy rule definition section click the equal to address(es) (v9.0) link.
    NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection
  4. Click Add.
  5. Select Mobility server address.
  6. Select the IP address assigned to the Mobility server’s internal network interface.
  7. Click Ok.
  8. Click Ok.

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection

Define an Action

  1. Click on the Actions tab.
  2. In the Passthrough Mode section check the box next to Enable/disable passthrough mode.
    NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection
  3. Click Save.
  4. Click Save.

Assign the Policy

  1. Click on the Subscribers tab.
  2. Choose a group to assign the policy to. This can be users, groups, devices, etc.
    NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection
  3. Click Subscribe.
  4. Select the Trusted Network Detection policy.
  5. Click Ok.

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection

Validation Testing

The NetMotion Mobility client will connect normally when the client is outside of the network. However, if the Mobility client detects that it is connected to the internal interface of the Mobility server, all network traffic will bypass the Mobility client.

NetMotion Mobility for DirectAccess Administrators – Trusted Network Detection

Summary

Trusted network detection can be used to control client behavior based on their network location. Many administrators prefer that connections only be made when clients are outside the network. DirectAccess clients use the NLS to determine network location and will not establish a DirectAccess connection if the NLS is reachable.

NetMotion Mobility trusted network detection relies on detecting the IP address of the Mobility server to which the connection was made. This is more elegant and effective than the DirectAccess NLS, and more reliable too.

Additional Information

Enabling Secure Remote Administrator for the NetMotion Mobility Management Console

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Deploying NetMotion Mobility in Azure

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