Removing Always On VPN Connections

Removing Always On VPN ConnectionsMuch has been written about provisioning Windows 10 Always On VPN client connections over the past few years. While the preferred method for deploying Always On VPN is Microsoft Intune, using PowerShell is often helpful for initial testing, and required for production deployment with System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) or Microsoft Endpoint Manager (MEM). That said, there will invariably come a time when an administrator has to remove an Always On VPN connection. It is not as simple as you might think.

PowerShell

There are a variety of ways to remove an existing Always On VPN connection, with the quickest and simplest being PowerShell and the Remove-VpnConnection cmdlet.

Get-VpnConnection -Name ‘Always On VPN’ | Remove-VpnConnection -Force

There are several limitations to this method, however.

Active Connections

Administrators will quickly realize that PowerShell fails to remove a VPN connection that is currently connected. As shown here, attempting to remove an active VPN connection will return the following error message.

“The VPN connection [connection name] cannot be removed from the local user connections. Cannot delete a connection while it is connected.”

Removing Always On VPN Connections

Registry Artifacts

Removing Always On VPN connections using PowerShell commonly leaves behind registry artifacts that can potentially cause problems. For example, there are several Always On VPN-related registry entries in several locations including the HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\EnterpriseResourceManager\Tracked hive that may not be deleted when removing an Always On VPN connection. When provisioning a new Always On VPN connection after deleting one with the same name previously, the administrator may encounter the following error message.

“Unable to create [connection name] profile: A general error occurred that is not covered by a more specific error code.”

Removing Always On VPN Connections

Note: This error can also be caused by improperly formatted XML configuration files. More details here.

Remove-AovpnConnection Script

Veteran Always On VPN administrators are likely familiar with PowerShell scripts I’ve created called New-AovpnConneciton.ps1 and New-AovpnDeviceConnection.ps1, which are hosted on my GitHub. These scripts are adapted from code samples published by Microsoft to which I have included additional functionality. To address the limitations highlighted in this article I have published a new PowerShell script called Remove-AovpnConnection.ps1. It will remove any Always On VPN connection, even those that are currently active. It also includes logic to remove known registry artifacts common to Always On VPN. Download the script from GitHub and use the following syntax to remove an Always On VPN connection, established or not.

.\Remove-AovpnConnection.ps1 -ProfileName [connection name]

Running this PowerShell command will forcibly remove an Always On VPN connection. Use the -DeviceTunnel switch when removing a device tunnel connection (requires running in the system context). I have also included a -CleanUpOnly switch to remove registry artifacts when the VPN connection was previously removed using another method.

Updated Installation Scripts

I have also updated New-AovpnConnection.ps1 to include these registry clean up steps. This will prevent future errors when provisioning an Always On VPN client where a connection of the same name was removed previously.

Note: New-AovpnConnection.ps1 has also been updated to support device tunnel deployments. As such, I have deprecated New-AovpnDeviceConnection.ps1. Simply use New-AovpnConnection.ps1 with the -DeviceTunnel switch to deploy an Always On VPN device tunnel.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using PowerShell

Troubleshooting Always On VPN Unable to Create Profile General Error

 

Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography Native Support Now in Intune

Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography Native Support Now in IntuneMicrosoft recently announced support for native Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel configuration in Intune. Previously administrators had to use the complicated and error-prone custom XML configuration to deploy the Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel to their clients. That is no longer required with this recent Intune update. In addition, administrators may now specify custom cryptography settings for IPsec Security Association (SA) parameters for IKEv2 for both device tunnel and user tunnel connections. This effectively eliminates the requirement to use custom ProfileXML for most deployment scenarios.

Device Tunnel Configuration in Intune

Follow the steps below to configure and deploy a Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel using the native Intune user interface.

Create Profile

1. Open the Microsoft Endpoint Manager admin center (devicemanagement.microsoft.com).
2. Navigate to Devices > Configuration Policies.
3. Click Create profile.
4. Choose Windows 10 and later from the Platform drop-down list.
5. Choose VPN from the Profile drop-down list.
6. Click Create.

Profile Settings

Proceed with the profile configuration as you would normally, providing the VPN connection name, VPN server name(s), and choosing the option to register IP addresses with internal DNS. Next use the following steps to define a device tunnel connection and specify custom cryptography for IPsec SA parameters for IKEv2.

Configure a Device Tunnel

1. Select IKEv2 from the Connection type drop-down list.
2. Click Enable in the Always On section.
3. Select Machine Certificates from the Authentication method section.
4. If the computer certificate is provisioned using Intune, select the client authentication certificate (not required if the computer certificate is provisioned using on-premises Active Directory).
5. Click Enable in the Device Tunnel section.

Define Custom Cryptography

Follow the steps below to implement minimum security baseline cryptography settings for IKEv2.

IKE Security Association Parameters

1. Select AES-128 from the Encryption algorithm drop-down list.
2. Select SHA2-256 from the Integrity check algorithm drop-down list.
3. Select 14 from the Diffie-Hellman group drop-down list.

Child Security Association Parameters

1. Select CBC-AES-128 from the Cipher transform algorithm drop-down list.
2. Select HMAC-SHA256-128 from the Authentication transform algorithm drop-down list.
3. Select 14 from the Perfect forward secrecy (pfs) group drop-down list.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography Native Support Now in Intune

Important Note: The IPsec security association parameters outlined above are the minimum recommend security baseline for IKEv2 and are compatible with all supported versions of Windows Server RRAS. It is recommended that authenticated cipher suites (GCM) be used whenever possible. However, GCM ciphers are not supported for encryption prior to Window Server 1803. Administrators should review these security settings and adjust the parameters to meet their specific security requirements.

Server Configuration

When defining custom cryptography settings for IKEv2 for device tunnel deployment, it is critical that the server be configured using identical parameters. Failure to use matching cryptography settings on the client and server will result in error code 13868, which indicates an IPsec policy mismatch.

A PowerShell script to configure IKEv2 security association parameter minimum security baselines on the RRAS server as outlined above can be found here. The commands to make these changes on the Azure VPN gateway can be found in this post.

Caveats

While Microsoft has made great strides to ensure better support for Always On VPN configuration using the native Intune UI, there are a few critical settings are still not supported. In these scenarios the administrator must deploy Always On VPN using custom XML, as described here and here.

Custom Cryptography

IKEv2 custom cryptography settings are only exposed when IKEv2 is selected as the connection type. It appears that defining custom cryptography settings for IKEv2 when the connection type is set to Automatic is not supported at this time. If you wish to specify the Automatic connection type and use custom cryptography settings for IKEv2 you will need to deploy the device tunnel using custom ProfileXML.

IPv6

IPv6 routing when configuring split tunneling for Always On VPN in Intune is not supported.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography Native Support Now in Intune

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Policy Mismatch Error

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing and NAT

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Fragmentation

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Security Configuration

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Operation and Best Practices

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Operation and Best PracticesUnlike DirectAccess, Windows 10 Always On VPN settings are deployed to the individual user, not the device. As such, there is no support for logging on without cached credentials using the default configuration. To address this limitation, and to provide feature parity with DirectAccess, Microsoft later introduced the device tunnel option in Windows 10 1709.

Device Tunnel Use Cases

The device tunnel is designed to allow the client device to establish an Always On VPN connection before the user logs on. This enables important scenarios such as logging on without cached credentials. This feature is crucial for organizations who expect users to log on to devices the first time remotely. The device tunnel can also be helpful for remote support, allowing administrators to manage remotely connected Always On VPN clients without having a user logged on. In addition, the device tunnel can alleviate some of the pain caused by administrators resetting remote worker’s passwords, or by users initiating a Self-Service Password Reset (SSPR).

Device Tunnel Requirements

The device tunnel requires Windows 10 Enterprise edition 1709 or later, and the client device must be joined to the domain. The device tunnel must be provisioned in the context of the local system account. Guidance for configuring and deploying a Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel can be found here.

Device Tunnel Authentication

The device tunnel is authenticated using a certificate issued to the client device, much the same as DirectAccess does. Authentication takes place on the Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) VPN server. It does not require a Network Policy Server (NPS) to perform authentication for the device tunnel.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Operation and Best Practices

CRL Checking

Eventually an administrator may need to deny access to a device configured with an Always On VPN device tunnel connection. In theory, revoking the client device’s certificate and terminating their IPsec Security Associations (SAs) on the VPN server would accomplish this. However, Windows Server RRAS does not perform certificate revocation checking for Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel connections by default. Thankfully an update is available to enable this functionality. See Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Certificate Revocation for more details.

Configuration Best Practices

As the device tunnel is designed only to support domain authentication for remote clients, it should be configured with limited access to the on-premises infrastructure. Below is a list of required and optional infrastructure services that should be reachable over the device tunnel connection.

Required

  • All domain controllers
  • Enterprise DNS servers (if DNS is running on servers other than domain controllers)

Optional

  • All issuing certification authority (CA) servers
  • All certificate services online HTTP responders
  • All certificate services Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) servers
  • System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) distribution point servers
  • Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) servers
  • Management workstations

Limiting Access

Limiting access over the Always On VPN device tunnel can be accomplished in one of the following two ways.

Traffic Filters

The administrator can configure traffic filters on the device tunnel to restrict access only to those IP addresses required. However, be advised that when a traffic filter is enabled on the device tunnel, all inbound access will be blocked. This effectively prevents any remote management of the device from an on-premises system over the device tunnel.

Host Routes

An alternative to using traffic filters to limit access over the device tunnel is using host routes. Host routes are configured with a /32 prefix size and define a route to a specific individual host. The following is an example of host route configuration in ProfileXML.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Operation and Best Practices

Note: A PowerShell script that enumerates all enterprise domain controllers and outputs their IP addresses in XML format for use in ProfileXML can be found here.

Caveats

Some organizations may have hundreds or even thousands of domain controllers, so creating individual host route entries for all domain controllers in profileXML may not be practical. In this scenario it is recommended to add host routes only for the domain controllers that belong to the Active Directory site where the VPN server resides.

Supportability

Do not use the <DomainNameInformation> element in ProfileXML or enable force tunneling for the device tunnel. Neither of these configurations are supported.

Tunnel Coexistence

The device tunnel can be safely deployed in conjunction with the user tunnel whenever its functionality is required.

DNS Registration

If the device tunnel and user tunnel are both deployed, it is recommended that only one of the tunnels be configured to register in DNS. If the device tunnel is configured to register its IP address in DNS, be advised that only those devices with routes configured in the device tunnel VPN profile will be able to connect remotely to Always On VPN clients.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Certificate Revocation

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration with Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Does Not Connect Automatically

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Missing in Windows 10 UI

Deleting a Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using PowerShell

Always On VPN Trusted Network Detection

Always On VPN Trusted Network DetectionWhen deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN, administrators can configure Trusted Network Detection (TND) which enables clients to detect when they are on the internal network. With this option set, the client will only automatically establish a VPN connection when it is outside the trusted network. Trusted network detection can be configured on both device tunnel and user tunnel connections.

TND Operation

When trusted network detection is configured, the VPN client will evaluate the DNS suffix assigned to all physical (non-virtual or tunnel) adapters that are active. If any of them match the administrator-defined trusted network setting, the client is determined to be on the internal network and the VPN connection will not connect. If the DNS suffix is not present on any of these adapters, the client is determined to be outside the internal network and the VPN connection will establish automatically.

TND Configuration

Trusted network detection is defined in the Intune UI or in ProfileXML as a string that matches the DNS suffix assigned to clients on the internal network. In this example, the DNS suffix on the internal network is lab.richardhicks.net.

Always On VPN Trusted Network Detection

Note: Your organization might have more than one DNS suffix. Ensure that the trusted network detection configuration includes all DNS suffixes in use in the environment to ensure reliable operation.

Intune

Follow the steps below to configured trusted network detection in Microsoft Intune.

  1. Open the Intune management portal (https://devicemanagement.microsoft.com/).
  2. Navigate to Devices > Configuration Profiles > [Profile Name] > Properties > Settings.
  3. Click on Trusted Network Detection.
  4. Enter the DNS suffix(es) used on the internal network.

Always On VPN Trusted Network Detection

ProfileXML

To define Trusted Network Detection in ProfileXML, add the TrustedNetworkDetection element as follows.

Always On VPN Trusted Network Detection

Caveats

In some instances, an Always On VPN client connection may persist, even if the client is connected to the internal network. A common scenario is when a client device connects to a Wi-Fi network that is not connected to the corporate network (for example guest Wi-Fi), then connects to the internal network with Ethernet via a docking station. If the Wi-Fi connection is still available, the Always On VPN connection will persist, even though the machine is connected to the internal network. This is expected and by design.

Workaround

To address this specific scenario, administrators can implement changes via group policy to the way Windows handles multiple connections to the same network. For example, beginning with Windows 10 1709, group policy can be configured to ensure that Windows 10 clients prefer wired Ethernet network connections over Wi-Fi, and to ensure that Wi-Fi connections disconnect when an Ethernet connection is detected.

GPO Configuration

Open the Group Policy management console (gpmc.msc) and perform the following steps to create the required group policy objects.

  1. Create a new Group Policy Object (GPO).
  2. Right-click the new GPO and choose Edit.
  3. Expand Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Network > Windows Connection Manager.
  4. Double-click the policy Minimize the number of simultaneous connections to the Internet or a Windows Domain.
  5. Select Enabled.
  6. From the Minimize Policy Options drop-down list choose 1 = Minimize simultaneous connections. Optionally you can choose to disable Wi-Fi whenever connected to Ethernet by choosing 3 = Prevent Wi-Fi when on Ethernet.
  7. Click Ok.Always On VPN Trusted Network Detection
  8. Double-click the policy Enable Windows to soft-disconnect a computer from a network.
  9. Select Disabled.
  10. Click Ok.Always On VPN Trusted Network Detection

Additional Information

Understanding and Configuring Windows Connection Manager

NetMotion Mobility with Microsoft Endpoint Manager and Intune

NetMotion Mobility with Microsoft Endpoint Manager and IntuneNetMotion Software and Microsoft have now partnered to integrate NetMotion Mobility with Microsoft Endpoint Manager and Intune. NetMotion Mobility is a purpose-built enterprise VPN solution that has many advantages over competing remote access technologies. Using Microsoft Endpoint Manager or Intune, organizations can now quickly and easily provision NetMotion client software to their managed devices.

NetMotion Mobility

NetMotion Mobility is a popular remote access solution designed to meet the needs of enterprise organization with diverse mobility requirements. NetMotion Mobility uses a proprietary transport protocol that, unlike any other solution, is designed for mobility from inception. It includes many advanced features not found anywhere else. You can learn more about NetMotion Mobility here.

Comparing DirectAccess and NetMotion Mobility

Endpoint Manager and Intune

More information about the NetMotion Software and Microsoft Endpoint Manager and Intune partnership here.

Additional Information

5 Things NetMotion Mobility Can Do that Microsoft DirectAccess Can’t
5 Things NetMotion Mobility Can Do that Microsoft Windows 10 Always On VPN Can’t
Comparing NetMotion Mobility and Microsoft DirectAccess

Evaluate NetMotion Mobility

Interested in learning more about NetMotion Mobility? Complete the form below and I’ll provide you with more information.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN GatewayAlways On VPN is infrastructure independent, which allows for many different deployment scenarios including on-premises and cloud-based. In Microsoft Azure, the Azure VPN gateway can be configured to support Windows 10 Always On VPN client connections in some scenarios. Recently I wrote about using the Azure VPN gateway for Always On VPN user tunnels. In this post I’ll describe how to configure the Azure VPN gateway to support an Always On VPN device tunnel.

Limitations

There are a few crucial limitations that come with using the Azure VPN gateway for Always On VPN. Importantly, the Azure VPN gateway can support either user tunnels or device tunnels, not both at the same time. In addition, Azure supports only a single VPN gateway per VNet, so deploying an additional VPN gateway in the same VNet to support Always On VPN user tunnels is not an option.

Root CA Certificate

The Always On VPN device tunnel is authenticated using a machine certificate issued to domain-joined Windows 10 Enterprise edition clients by the organization’s internal Certification Authority (CA). The CA’s root certificate must be uploaded to Azure for the VPN gateway to authorize device tunnel connections. The root CA certificate can be exported using the Certification Authority management console (certsrv.msc) or via the command line.

Export Certificate – GUI

Follow the steps below to export a root CA certificate using the Certification Authority management console.

1. On the root CA server, open the Certification Authority management console.
2. Right-click the CA and choose Properties.
3. Select the CA server’s certificate and choose View Certificate.
4. Select the Details tab and click Copy to File.
5. Click Next.
6. Choose Base-64 encoded X.509 (.CER).

Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

7. Click Next.
8. Enter a location to save the file to.
9. Click Next, Finish, and Ok.

Export Certificate – Command Line

Follow the steps below to export a root CA certificate using the command line.

1. On the root CA server, open an elevated command window (not a PowerShell window).
2. Enter certutil.exe -ca.cert root_certificate.cer.
3. Enter certutil.exe -encode root.cer root_certificate_base64.cer.

Copy Public Key

1. Open the saved root certificate file using Notepad.
2. Copy the file contents between the BEGIN CERTIFICATE and END CERTIFICATE tags, as shown here. Use caution and don’t copy the carriage return at the end of the string.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Point-to-Site Configuration

The Azure VPN gateway must be deployed as a Route-Based gateway to support point-to-site VPN connections. Detailed requirements for the gateway can be found here. Once the VPN gateway has been provisioned, follow the steps below to enable point-to-site configuration for Always On VPN device tunnels.

1. In the navigation pane of the Azure VPN gateway settings click Point-to-site configuration.
2. Click the Configure now link and specify an IPv4 address pool to be assigned to VPN clients. This IP address pool must be unique in the organization and must not overlap with an IP address ranges defined in the Azure virtual network.
3. From the Tunnel type drop-down list select IKEv2.
4. In the Root certificates section enter a descriptive name for the certificate in the Name field.
5. Copy and paste the Base64 encoded public key copied previously into the Public certificate data field.
6. Click Save to save the configuration.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

VPN Client Configuration

To support the Always On VPN device tunnel, the client must have a certificate issued by the internal CA with the Client Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU). Detailed guidance for deploying a Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel can be found here.

Download VPN Configuration

1. Click Point-to-site configuration.
2. Click Download VPN client.
3. Click Save.
4. Open the downloaded zip file and extract the VpnSettings.xml file from the Generic folder.
5. Copy the FQDN in the VpnServer element in VpnSettings.xml. This is the FQDN that will be used in the template VPN connection and later in ProfileXML.

Create a Test VPN Connection

It is recommended to create a test VPN connection to perform validation testing of the Azure VPN gateway before provisioning an Always On VPN device tunnel broadly. On a domain-joined Windows 10 enterprise client, create a new VPN connection using IKEv2 with machine certificate authentication. Use the VPN server FQDN copied from the VpnSettings.xml file previously.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Create an Always On VPN Connection

Once the VPN has been validated using the test profile created previously, an Always On VPN profile can be created and deployed using Intune, SCCM, or PowerShell. The following articles can be used for reference.

Deploy Always On VPN device tunnel using PowerShell

Deploy Always On VPN device tunnel using Intune

IKEv2 Security Configuration

The default IKEv2 security parameters used by the Azure VPN gateway are better than Windows Server, but the administrator will notice that a weak Diffie-Hellman (DH) key (Group 2 – 1024 bit) is used during IPsec phase 1 negotiation.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Use the following PowerShell commands to update the default IKEv2 security parameters to recommended baseline defaults, including 2048-bit keys (DH group 14) and AES-128 for improved performance.

Connect-AzAccount
Select-AzSubscription -SubscriptionName [Azure Subscription Name]

$Gateway = [Gateway Name]
$ResourceGroup = [Resource Group Name]

$IPsecPolicy = New-AzVpnClientIpsecParameter -IpsecEncryption AES128 -IpsecIntegrity SHA256 -SALifeTime 28800 -SADataSize 102400000 -IkeEncryption AES128 -IkeIntegrity SHA256 -DhGroup DHGroup14 -PfsGroup PFS14

Set-AzVpnClientIpsecParameter -VirtualNetworkGatewayName $Gateway -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroup -VpnClientIPsecParameter $IPsecPolicy

Note: Be sure to update the cryptography settings on the test VPN connection and in ProfileXML for Always On VPN connections to match the new VPN gateway settings. Failing to do so will result in an IPsec policy mismatch error.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN User Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Security Configuration

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using PowerShell

Windows 10 Always On VPN Options for Azure Deployments

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Features and Limitations

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Error 0x80004003

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Error 0x80004003To support certificate deployment for non-domain Windows 10 Always On VPN clients, a Windows Server with the Network Device Enrollment Service (NDES) role can be provisioned on-premises. In addition, the Microsoft Intune Connector must be installed and configured on the NDES server to allow Intune-managed clients to request and receive certificates from the on-premises Certification Authority (CA) server.

Connection Status Error

After installing the Microsoft Intune Connector, the administrator may encounter the following error message.

“An error occurred while connecting to the Intune Service. Error code is 0x80004003. The NDES Connector will retry the connection as soon as possible.”

 Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Error 0x80004003

IE Enhanced Security Configuration

This error can occur if Internet Explorer Enhanced Security Configuration (ESC) is enabled. To resolve this issue, disable ESC for administrators and users by opening the Server Manager on the NDES server and performing the following steps.

1. In the navigation pane click Local Server.
2. Click the On link next to IE Enhanced Security Configuration.
3. Click Off in the Administrators section.
4. Click Off in the Users section
5. Click Ok.

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Error 0x80004003

Once complete, restart the NDES Connector service using the following PowerShell command.

Restart-Service NDESConnectorSvc -PassThru

Additional Configuration

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended PrematurelyA Windows Server with the Network Device Enrollment Service (NDES) role can be provisioned on-premises to support certificate deployment for non-domain Windows 10 Always On VPN clients. In addition, the Microsoft Intune Connector must be installed and configured on the NDES server to allow Intune-managed clients to request and receive certificates from the on-premises Certification Authority (CA) server.

Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

When installing the Microsoft Intune Connector, the administrator may encounter a scenario where the setup wizard fails with the following error message.

“Microsoft Intune Connector Setup Wizard ended prematurely because of an error. Your system has not been modified. To install this program at a later time, run Setup Wizard again. Click the Finish button to exit the Setup Wizard.”

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

Cryptographic Service Provider

This error can occur if the NDES server certificate template is configured to use the Key Storage Provider cryptography service provider (CSP). When configuring the certificate template for the NDES server, the Legacy Cryptography Service Provider must be used, as shown here.

Microsoft Intune NDES Connector Setup Wizard Ended Prematurely

Additional Information

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXML

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Microsoft Intune

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Microsoft Intune

 

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Always On VPN with Azure GatewayRecently I wrote about VPN server deployment options for Windows 10 Always On VPN in Azure. In that post I indicated the native Azure VPN gateway could be used to support Always On VPN connections using Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) and Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP). In this post I’ll outline the requirements and configuration steps for implementing this solution.

Requirements

To support Always On VPN, point-to-site VPN connections must be enabled on the Azure VPN gateway. Not all Azure VPN gateways are alike, and point-to-site connections are not supported in all scenarios. For Always On VPN, the Azure VPN gateway must meet the following requirements.

VPN SKU

The Azure VPN gateway SKU must be VpnGw1, VpnGw2, VpnGw3, VpnGw1AZ, VpnGw2AZ, or VpnGw3AZ. The Basic SKU is not supported.

VPN Type

The VPN type must be route-based. Policy-based VPN gateways are not supported for point-to-site VPN connections.

Limitations

Using the Azure VPN gateway for Always On VPN may not be ideal in all scenarios. The following limitations should be considered thoroughly before choosing the Azure VPN gateway for Always On VPN.

Device Tunnel

RADIUS/EAP authentication for user tunnel connections is not supported if the Azure VPN gateway is configured to support device tunnel with machine certificate authentication.

Maximum Connections

A maximum of 250, 500, and 1000 concurrent IKEv2 connections are supported when using the VpnGw1/AZ, VpnGw2/AZ, and VpnGw3/AZ SKUs, respectively (x2 for active/active gateway deployments). In addition, a maximum of 128 concurrent SSTP connections are supported for all VPN gateway SKUs (x2 for active/active gateway deployments).

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/vpn-gateway/vpn-gateway-about-vpngateways#gwsku

RADIUS Requirements

To support Always On VPN connections, the Azure VPN gateway must be configured to authenticate to a RADIUS server. The RADIUS server must be reachable from the VPN gateway subnet. The RADIUS server can be hosted in Azure or on-premises. Before proceeding, ensure that any network routes, firewall rules, and site-to-site VPN tunnel configuration is in place to allow this communication.

RADIUS Configuration

Guidance for configuring Windows Server NPS for Always On VPN can be found here. The only difference when configuring NPS for use with Azure VPN gateway is the RADIUS client configuration.

Open the NPS management console (nps.msc) and follow the steps below to configure Windows Server NPS to support Always On VPN client connections from the Azure VPN gateway.

1. Expand RADIUS Clients and Servers.
2. Right-click RADIUS Clients and choose New.
3. Enter a descriptive name in the Friendly name field.
4. Enter the Azure VPN gateway subnet using CIDR notation in the Address (IP or DNS) field. The gateway subnet can be found by viewing the properties of the Azure VPN gateway in the Azure portal.
5. Enter the shared secret to be used for RADIUS communication in the Shared secret field.

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Azure VPN Gateway Configuration

To begin, provision a Virtual Network Gateway in Azure that meets the requirements outlined above. Guidance for implementing an Azure VPN gateway can be found here. Once complete, follow the steps below to enable support for Always On VPN client connections.

Enable Point-to-Site

Perform the following steps to enable point-to-site VPN connectivity.

1. In the navigation pane of the Azure VPN gateway settings click Point-to-site configuration.
2. Click Configure Now and specify an IPv4 address pool to be assigned to VPN clients. This IP address pool must be unique in the organization and must not overlap with any IP address ranges defined in the Azure virtual network.
3. From the Tunnel type drop-down list select IKEv2 and SSTP (SSL).
4. In the RADIUS authentication field enter the IPv4 address of the RADIUS server. At the time of this writing only a single IPv4 address is supported. If RADIUS redundancy is required, consider creating a load balanced NPS cluster.
5. In the Server secret field enter the RADIUS shared secret.
6. Click Save to save the configuration.

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

VPN Client Configuration

Perform the following steps to configure a Windows 10 VPN client to connect to the Azure VPN gateway.

Download VPN Configuration

1. Click Point-to-site configuration.
2. Click Download VPN client.
3. Select EAPMSCHAv2 (yes, that’s correct even if EAP-TLS will be used!)
4. Click Download.
5. Open the downloaded zip file and extract the VpnSettings.XML file from the Generic folder.
6. Copy the FQDN in the VpnServer element in VpnSettings.XML. This is the FQDN that will be used in the template VPN connection and later in ProfileXML.

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Create a Test VPN Connection

On a Windows 10 device create a test VPN profile using the VPN server address copied previously. Configure EAP settings to match those configured on the NPS server and test connectivity.

Create an Always On VPN Connection

Once the VPN has been validated using the test profile created previously, the VPN server and EAP configuration from the test profile can be used to create the Always On VPN profile for publishing using Intune, SCCM, or PowerShell.

IKEv2 Security Configuration

The default IKEv2 security parameters used by the Azure VPN gateway are better than Windows Server, but the administrator will notice that a weak DH key (1024 bit) is used in phase 1 negotiation.

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Use the following PowerShell commands to update the default IKEv2 security parameters to recommended baseline defaults, including 2048-bit keys (DH group 14) and AES-128 for improved performance.

Connect-AzAccount
Select-AzSubscription -SubscriptionName [Azure Subscription Name]

$Gateway = [Gateway Name]
$ResourceGroup = [Resource Group Name]

$IPsecPolicy = New-AzVpnClientIpsecParameter -IpsecEncryption AES128 -IpsecIntegrity SHA256 -SALifeTime 28800 -SADataSize 102400000 -IkeEncryption AES128 -IkeIntegrity SHA256 -DhGroup DHGroup14 -PfsGroup PFS14

Set-AzVpnClientIpsecParameter -VirtualNetworkGatewayName $Gateway -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroup -VpnClientIPsecParameter $IPsecPolicy

Note: Be sure to update the cryptography settings on the test VPN connection and in ProfileXML for Always On VPN connections to match the new VPN gateway settings. Failing to do so will result in an IPsec policy mismatch error.

Additional Information

Microsoft Azure VPN Gateway Overview

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Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Security Configuration

 

 

 

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update AvailableWhen configuring Always On VPN, administrators have the option to enable DNS registration for VPN clients. When this option is set, VPN clients will register the IP address assigned to their VPN interface in the internal DNS. This allows client devices to be managed using their hostname from the internal network whenever they are connected remotely.

DNS Registration

DNS registration is enabled in one of two ways, depending on how Always On VPN client devices are managed.

Intune

When using the native Microsoft Intune UI to manage Always On VPN profiles, DNS registration can be configured by selecting Enabled next to Register IP addresses with internal DNS in the Base VPN settings section.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

ProfileXML

When using custom ProfileXML with PowerShell, SCCM, or Intune, the administrator will define the RegisterDNS element to enable DNS registration.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Known Issues

Some users have reported unexpected behavior when DNS registration is enabled. Specifically, under some circumstances the VPN client will register the IP address of the VPN network interface along with the IP address of its public network interface (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, etc.). However, the VPN client can only be managed using the VPN interface. If the VPN client’s hostname resolves to its public IP address, manage out will fail.

This appears to happen only when Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules are defined in Intune DNS settings, or if the DomainNameInformation element is defined in ProfileXML.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update AvailableAlways On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Resolution

Microsoft recently released fixes for this DNS registration issue for Windows 10. The fix for this issue is included in the following updates.

Windows 10 1803 – KB4507466
Windows 10 1809 – KB4505658
Windows 10 1903 – KB4505903

Additional Configuration

After installing the update, the following registry entry must be defined on each VPN client.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dnscache\Parameters\DisableNRPTForAdapterRegistration DWORD = 1

To enable this setting, open an elevated PowerShell window and run the following command.

New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dnscache\Parameters\’ -Name DisableNRPTForAdapterRegistration -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force

Once complete, restart the client device for the changes to take effect. After validation testing is complete, the registry entry can be deployed to Always On VPN clients using Active Directory group policy preferences or Intune.

Additional Information

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXML

Windows 10 Always On VPN Updates to Improve Connection Reliability

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training Classes

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