Always On VPN Book Available for Pre-Order

Great news! My new book, Implementing Always On VPN, is now available for pre-order on Amazon.com. This new book, scheduled for release in late 2021, is a comprehensive implementation guide for Windows 10 Always On VPN. Drawing on many years of experience deploying Always On VPN for organizations worldwide, it covers all aspects of an Always On VPN deployment, including planning and design, prerequisite gathering, infrastructure preparation, and client deployment.

In addition, it contains detailed, prescriptive guidance for advanced configuration options such as application and traffic filtering and proxy server configuration. Cloud deployments using Azure VPN gateway and Virtual WAN are covered, and it includes guidance for configuring Azure MFA and Conditional Access.

Also, the book includes thorough guidance for provisioning certificates using Microsoft Endpoint Manager/Intune using both PKCS and SCEP. It outlines options for high availability for VPN and authentication infrastructure and provides details for ongoing system maintenance and operational support.

Finally, the book has an entire chapter dedicated to troubleshooting and resolving common (and not so common!) issues encountered with Windows 10 Always On VPN.

Reserve your copy today. Pre-order Implementing Always On VPN now!

Chapter List

  1. Always On VPN Overview
  2. Plan an Always On VPN Deployment
  3. Prepare the Infrastructure
  4. Configure Windows Server for Always On VPN
  5. Provision Always On VPN clients
  6. Advanced Configuration
  7. Cloud Deployments
  8. Deploy Certificates with Intune
  9. Integrating Azure MFA
  10. High Availability
  11. Monitor and Report
  12. Troubleshooting

Always On VPN Error 853 on Windows 11

Recently I did some validation testing with Always On VPN on Windows 11, and I’m happy to report that everything seems to work without issue. However, a few readers have reported 853 errors when establishing an Always On VPN connection after upgrading to Windows 11.

Can’t Connect

After upgrading to Windows 11, an Always On VPN connection may fail with the following error message.

“The remote access connection completed, but authentication failed because the certificate that authenticates the client to the server is not valid. Ensure the certificate used for authentication is valid.”

Error 853

In addition, the Application event log records an event ID 20227 from the RasClient source that includes the following message.

“The user <username> dialed a connection name <connection name> which has failed. The error code returned on failure is 853.”

Server Identity

This error will occur when using Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol (PEAP) authentication. Specifically, it can happen when the option to verify NPS server validity by its certificate is selected, and an explicit list of NPS servers is defined, as shown here.

Case Sensitive

In this specific scenario, Windows 11 now appears to be case-sensitive when it compares the NPS server name entered in the NPS configuration to the Subject Name on the certificate returned by the server. For example, if the Subject Name (or Subject Alternative Name, if present) entry on the NPS server certificate is nps.lab.richardhicks.net, using NPS.lab.richardhicks.net will not match and return an 853 error.

Windows 11

Case matching when validating the NPS server certificate is a change in behavior from Windows 10. Before Windows 11, this comparison was case-insensitive, and any combination of case would match if the entire hostname matched. Going forward, it appears Microsoft has also decided to require case matching to validate the server certificate.

Recommendations

Administrators should look carefully at the server certificate issued to the NPS server and ensure their client configuration accurately reflects the hostname in a case-sensitive manner to ensure a smooth migration from Windows 10 to Windows 11.

Additional Information

Troubleshooting Windows 10 Always On VPN Error 853

Windows 10 Always On VPN Network Policy Server (NPS) Load Balancing

Always On VPN Short Name Access Failure

Using Microsoft Endpoint Manager (Intune), administrators can provision Always On VPN to devices that are Azure AD joined only. Users accessing on-premises resources from these devices can still use seamless single sign-on, making this deployment option popular for organizations moving to the cloud.

Short Names

After deploying Always On VPN to Windows 10 devices that are Azure AD joined only and configured to use client certificate authentication, administrators may find that users cannot access on-premises resources by their short name, such as \\app1. The connection fails and returns the following error message.

“Windows can’t find <servername/sharename>. Check the spelling and try again.”

FQDN

Interestingly, on-premises resources are accessible using their fully qualified domain name (FQDN), such as \\app1.corp.example.net.

Troubleshooting

Testing name resolution using the short name works as expected, and the resource is reachable at the network layer, as shown here.

Workaround

This issue is related to how Windows performs authentication when connected via VPN. To resolve this issue, edit the rasphone.pbk file and change the value of UseRasCredentials to 0. Rasphone.pbk can be found in the $env:AppData\Microsoft\Network\Connections\Pbk folder.

After updating this setting, restart the VPN connection for the change to take effect.

Proactive Remediations

While helpful for testing, editing rasphone.pbk manually obviously does not scale well. To address this, consider using Intune Proactive Remediations. Intune Proactive Remediations allows administrators to deploy detection and remediation PowerShell scripts to monitor specific settings and update them if or when they change. Proactive Remediations will ensure the setting is applied consistently across all managed endpoints.

GitHub Repository

I have created a new GitHub repository dedicated to PowerShell scripts for Endpoint Manager Proactive Remediations for Always On VPN. There you will find detection and remediation scripts for the UseRasCredentials settings change described in this article.

Additional Information

Always On VPN Endpoint Manager Proactive Remediation Scripts on GitHub

Endpoint Manager Proactive Remediations Tutorial

Troubleshooting Always On VPN Error 853

Troubleshooting Always On VPN Error 691 and 812 – Part 2

Using Windows Server Network Policy Server (NPS) servers is a common choice for authenticating Microsoft Windows 10 Always On VPN user tunnel connections. The NPS server is joined to the domain and configured with a Network Policy that defines the authentication scheme used by clients for authentication when establishing an Always On VPN connection. Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol (PEAP) using client authentication certificates recommended for most Always On VPN deployment scenarios.

Can’t Connect

Users establishing an Always On VPN user tunnel connection using PEAP and client authentication certificates may encounter a scenario in which a VPN connection attempt fails with the following error message.

“The remote access connection completed, but authentication failed because the certificate that authenticates the client to the server is not valid. Ensure that the certificate used for authentication is valid.”

Error 853

In addition, the Application event log records an event ID 20227 from the RasClient source that includes the following error message.

“The user <username> dialed a connection named <connection name> which has failed. The error code is 853.”

Missing NTAuth Certificate

Error code 853 is commonly caused by a missing issuing Certification Authority (CA) certificate in the NTAuth store on the NPS server. The NPS server must have the issuing CA certificate included in this store to perform authentication using client certificates. You can see the contents of the NTAuth certificate store by opening an elevated command window on the NPS server and running the following command.

certutil.exe -enterprise -viewstore NTAuth

Install Certificate

To install the issuing CA server’s certificate into the NTAuth store, copy the CA certificate to the NPS server, open an elevated command window, then run the following command.

certutil.exe -enterprise -addstore NTAuth <issuing CA certificate>

Once complete, view the store again, and you’ll see the issuing CA certificate listed in the NTAuth certificate store.

Additional Information

Troubleshooting Always On VPN Error Code 858

Troubleshooting Always On VPN Error Code 864

Always On VPN and Windows Server 2019 NPS Bug

Always On VPN Network Policy Server (NPS) Load Balancing

Microsoft Network Policy Server (NPS) Reason Codes

Always On VPN Traffic Filters and IPv6

Always On VPN Windows Server RRAS Service Does Not Start

Using Traffic Filters with Always On VPN provides administrators the option to configure a true Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) solution for their field-based users and devices. By enabling traffic filtering, network access over the Always On VPN connection can be controlled using fine-grained policies. Traffic Filter rules can be configured to restrict access based source and destination IP addresses, protocols, and source and destination ports. Administrators can further restrict access based on the application generating the traffic.

IPv6

While testing these features recently, I learned that the Microsoft Endpoint Manager (formerly Intune) user interface does not appear to support IPv6 when configuring traffic filter rules. As you can see here, the UI explicitly asks for an IPv4 address and complains when entering an IPv6 address in the address field, as shown here.

Interestingly, it is possible to add IPv6 addresses in XML, as follows.

<TrafficFilter>
   <App>
      <Id>Microsoft.RemoteDesktop_8wekyb3d8bbwe</Id>
   </App>
   <Protocol>6</Protocol>
   <RemotePortRanges>3389</RemotePortRanges>
   <RemoteAddressRanges>2001:470:f109::/48</RemoteAddressRanges>
</TrafficFilter>

Connection Failure

Unfortunately, after loading the XML on a test client, the Always On VPN connection fails with the following error message.

“Can’t connect to <ConnectionName>. Catastrophic failure.”

In addition, the Application event log records an event ID 20227 from the RasClient source with the following error.

“The user <UserName> dialed a connection name <ConnectionName> which has failed. The error code returned on failure is -2147418113.”

Workaround

At this time, the only known workaround is to update the configuration on the RRAS server to use IPv4 addressing for VPN clients.

Summary

Unfortunately, IPv6 is still a second-class citizen when it comes to Always On VPN. Although enabling IPv6 works well in most common deployment scenarios, the Microsoft Endpoint Manager management console often fails to accept IPv6 entries in IP address fields. In addition, some advanced features such as traffic filtering are incompatible with IPv6.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN and Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)

Windows 10 Always On VPN Windows Server RRAS Service Does Not Start

Always On VPN Proxy Server Configuration

Always On VPN Proxy Server Configuration

Web proxy servers are not as common today as they once were, but a few organizations still leverage them to provide secure Internet access for their employees. Commonly they are used to inspect and control Internet traffic and to enforce acceptable use policies. Some organizations may wish to extend this protection to Always On VPN clients in the field by enabling force tunneling. Administrators can define a web proxy server for Always On VPN connections globally for web traffic or individual websites or domains.

VPN Proxy

A VPN web proxy server can be defined when the Always On VPN user tunnel connection uses force tunneling. Although you can still configure a VPN web proxy server with split tunneling enabled, it will not work. It is only functional when force tunneling is in use.

Administrators can configure a VPN web proxy server using the Microsoft Endpoint Manager UI or custom XML deployed with Endpoint Manager or PowerShell. Administrators can define a VPN web proxy server explicitly, or a proxy automatic configuration (PAC) file can be specified.

Note: VPN proxy server settings only work when force tunneling is enabled. Force tunneling is an unsupported configuration for the device tunnel, making the global proxy server setting for the device tunnel unsupported.

Proxy Autoconfiguration

Perform the following steps to configure a VPN web proxy server with a PAC file in Endpoint Manager.

  1. Expand the Proxy section in the Configuration settings of the Always On VPN configuration profile.
  2. Enter the URL for the PAC file in the Automatic configuration script field. Be sure to include the port number in the URL when using a non-standard port.
  3. Leave the Address and Port number fields blank.
  4. Choose Enable or Disable from the Bypass proxy for local addresses drop-down list.

To configure a VPN web proxy server with a PAC file using custom XML, include the following code between the <VPNProfile> and </VPNProfile> tags in the Always On VPN XML configuration file.

Explicit Proxy

Perform the following steps to configure an explicit VPN web proxy server in Endpoint Manager.

  1. Enter the IP address, hostname, or fully qualified domain name (recommended) in the Address field.
  2. Enter the port number in the Port number field.
  3. Choose Enable or Disable from the Bypass proxy for local addresses drop-down list.

To configure an explicit VPN web proxy server using custom XML, include the following code between the <VPNProfile> and </VPNProfile> tags in the Always On VPN XML configuration file.

Namespace Proxy

Administrators can also define VPN web proxy servers on a per-namespace or per-hostname basis. Namespace VPN proxy servers can be helpful for scenarios where routing public websites over the Always On VPN connection is required. Most commonly, this is necessary because the public website restricts access to the IP address of the on-premises Internet gateway.

A namespace VPN proxy server is implemented using a Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rule. At the time of this writing, a bug in Microsoft Endpoint Manager prevents administrators from deploying this option using the UI.

As you can see here, administrators can specify a proxy server as part of an NRPT rule in the Endpoint Manager UI. Notice this section of the UI validates the proxy FQDN correctly.

Always On VPN Proxy Server Configuration

However, when you try to save the configuration profile, Endpoint Manager returns the following error.

“Unable to save due to invalid data. Update your data then try again: ProxyServerUri must be a valid URL or be empty.”

Interestingly, when entering a URL such as http://proxy.lab.richardhicks.net:8080/ in the Proxy field, the Endpoint Manager UI accepts it and successfully validates. But according to the VPNv2 Configuration Service Provider (CSP) reference, the value must be entered as an IP address. A hostname or FQDN also works based on my testing. Entering a URL as shown in the example above will not work at all.

With that, the only way to implement a namespace VPN web proxy server is to use custom XML. To do this, include the following code between the <VPNProfile> and </VPNProfile> tags in the Always On VPN XML configuration file.

Include the leading “.” to specify the entire domain, as shown above. Omit the leading “.” to specify an individual host (for example, app.richardhicks.com). Repeat this section for each additional host or domain, as required.

Caveat

Unfortunately, the Microsoft Internet Explorer web browser is the only browser that functions with the namespace VPN web proxy server. All modern web browsers, including Microsoft Edge, ignore the namespace proxy setting entirely, which seriously limits this feature’s usefulness in most organizations today.

Workaround

If routing a public website over the Always On VPN tunnel is required, adding its IP address(es) to the Always On VPN connection’s routing table is needed. However, doing this presents some unique challenges, as public websites frequently have many IP addresses, which are often dynamically changing. Also, it is common for public websites to pull content from many different domains or use Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), making the problem of identifying which IP addresses to add to the Always On VPN connection’s routing table even more challenging. Further, administrators must update the client configuration each a public website’s IP address changes, adding significant management overhead.

Summary

Routing client Internet traffic through an on-premises web proxy server for Always On VPN clients works well when force tunneling is enabled. Administrators can explicitly define a web proxy server or use a proxy automatic configuration (PAC) file. All web browsers work without issue in this scenario. Using a namespace proxy is only effective when browsing with Microsoft Internet Explorer. All modern web browsers, including Microsoft Edge, ignore namespace proxy settings.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN and the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT)

Windows 10 VPNv2 Configuration Service Provider (CSP) Reference

Windows 10 Always On VPN Client DNS Server Configuration

Always On VPN Updates for RRAS and IKEv2

Always On VPN Updates for RRAS and IKEv2

Many users have reported connection stability issues using Windows Server 2019 Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) and the IKEv2 VPN protocol. Specifically, there have been reports of random disconnects for which the connection cannot be re-established for an extended period. At the same time, other VPN connections may work without issue.

KB5003703

Microsoft has identified an issue in RRAS where the RemoteAccess service enters DoS protection mode, limiting incoming IKEv2 connection attempts. They released an update on June 15 (OS Build 17763.2028) that addresses this issue. Previously, the only workaround was to restart the IKEEXT service, which was highly disruptive if performed during peak hours.

No More Files

In addition, this update includes another Always On VPN-related fix for Windows 10 1809 clients. An Always On VPN user tunnel connection may fail, with an error message stating, “There are no more files.” The problem can occur after an existing user’s certificate is automatically renewed.

Additional Information

Microsoft Update June 15, 2021 KB5003703 (OS Build 17763.2028)

Always On VPN SSTP Security Configuration

Always On VPN SSTP Security Configuration

When using Windows Server Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) to terminate Always On VPN client connections, administrators can leverage the Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) VPN protocol for client-based VPN connections. SSTP is a Microsoft proprietary VPN protocol that uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) to secure connections between the client and the VPN gateway. SSTP provides some crucial advantages over IKEv2 in terms of operational reliability. It uses the TCP port 443, the standard HTTPS port, which is universally available and ensures Always On VPN connectivity even behind highly restrictive firewalls.

TLS Certificate

When configuring SSTP, the first thing to consider is the certificate installed on the server. A certificate with an RSA key is most common, but for SSTP, provisioning a certificate with an ECDSA key is recommended for optimal security and performance. See the following two articles regarding SSTP certificate requirements and ECDSA Certificate Signing Request (CSR) creation.

Always On VPN SSL Certificate Requirements for SSTP

Always On VPN ECDSA SSL Certificate Request for SSTP

TLS Configuration

Much like IKEv2, the default TLS security settings for SSTP are less than optimal. However, SSTP can provide excellent security with some additional configuration.

TLS Protocols

There are several deprecated TLS protocols enabled by default in Windows Server. These include SSLv3.0, TLS 1.0, and TLS 1.1. They should be disabled to improve security for TLS. To do this, open an elevated PowerShell window on the VPN server and run the following commands.

New-Item -Path ‘HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\SSL 3.0\Server\’ -Force

New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\SSL 3.0\Server\’ -Name Enabled -PropertyType DWORD -Value ‘0’

New-Item -Path ‘HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0\Server\’ -Force

New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0\Server\’ -Name Enabled -PropertyType DWORD -Value ‘0’

New-Item -Path ‘HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Server\’ -Force

New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Server\’ -Name Enabled -PropertyType DWORD -Value ‘0’

Cipher Suites

Many weak TLS cipher suites and enabled by default in Windows Server. To further enhance security and performance, they can be optimized using a tool such as IIS Crypto. For example, consider prioritizing cipher suites that use ECDHE and GCM with ECDSA to improve security. Also, remove ciphers that use AES-256 to enhance scalability and performance.

Note: AES-256 does not provide any additional practical security over AES-128. Details here.

PowerShell Script

I have published a PowerShell script on GitHub that performs security hardening and TLS cipher suite optimization to streamline the configuration TLS on Windows Server RRAS servers. You can download the script here.

Validation Testing

After running the script and restarting the server, visit the SSL Labs Server Test site to validate the configuration. You should receive an “A” rating, as shown here.

Note: An “A” rating is not achievable on Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2012 R2 when using an RSA TLS certificate. A TLS certificate using ECDSA is required to receive an “A” rating on these platforms.

Additional Information

Always On VPN SSL/TLS Certificate Requirements for SSTP

Always On VPN ECDSA SSL Certificate Request for SSTP

Qualys SSL Labs Server Test Site

Always On VPN Protocol Recommendations for Windows Server RRAS

Microsoft SSTP Specification on MSDN

Always On VPN and Autopilot Hybrid Azure AD Join

Always On VPN and Autopilot Hybrid Azure AD Join

Windows Autopilot is a cloud-based technology that administrators can use to configure new devices wherever they may be, whether on-premises or in the field. Devices provisioned with Autopilot are Azure AD joined by default and managed using Microsoft Endpoint Manager. Optionally, an administrator can enable hybrid Azure AD join by also joining the device to an on-premises Active Directory domain using a domain join configuration profile in conjunction with the offline domain-join connector. Although enabling hybrid Azure AD join might sound appealing, there are specific deployment scenarios that present some rather unique and challenging problems when using this option.

Offline Hybrid Azure AD Join

For field-based devices, the device must have connectivity to a domain controller to support the initial login when the user has no local cached credentials. The Always On VPN device tunnel can be deployed in this scenario to provide connectivity and allow the user to log in to a new device the first time without being on-premises. The Always On VPN device tunnel is easily deployed using a Microsoft Endpoint Manager configuration profile. Certificates required to support the device tunnel can be deployed with Microsoft Endpoint Manager and one of the certificate connectors for Microsoft Endpoint Manager.

Windows 10 Professional

If a Windows 10 Professional device is configured using Autopilot, and hybrid Azure AD joined is enabled, the Always On VPN device tunnel can still be provisioned, but it won’t start automatically because it requires Enterprise Edition to be fully functional. This prevents the user from being able to logon the first time. The device must be upgraded to Enterprise Edition before the first user logon. There are multiple ways to accomplish this depending on the deployment scenario and activation requirements.

Multiple Activation Key

The easiest way to upgrade Windows 10 Professional to Enterprise Edition is to obtain a Multiple Activation Key (MAK) and deploy that to clients using a Microsoft Endpoint Manager configuration profile. Follow the steps below to create a configuration profile to perform this upgrade.

  1. Open the Microsoft Endpoint Manager console and click on Devices > Configuration Profiles.
  2. Click Create profile.
  3. Select Windows 10 and later in the Platform drop-down list.
  4. Select Templates in the Profile type drop-down list.
  5. Select Edition upgrade and mode switch from the list of templates.
  6. Click Create.

Use the following steps to configure the settings for the configuration profile.

  1. Enter a descriptive name for the configuration profile in the Name field.
  2. Enter a description for the profile in the Description field (optional).
  3. Click Next.
  4. Expand the Edition Upgrade section and select Windows 10 Enterprise from the Edition to upgrade to drop-down list.
  5. Enter your multiple activation product key in the Product Key field.

    Always On VPN and Autopilot Hybrid Azure AD Join

Once complete, assign the configuration profile to the appropriate groups and click Create.

KMS Activation

If Key Management Service (KMS) activation is required, follow the steps listed previously for MAK. Enter the KMS client setup key for Windows 10 Enterprise which is NPPR9-FWDCX-D2C8J-H872K-2YT43. The device will complete KMS activation when it can connect to the on-premises KMS host.

Subscription Activation

Windows 10 Enterprise Edition licensing is included in some Microsoft 365 subscriptions. This poses a unique challenge for hybrid Azure AD join scenarios, however. Specifically, subscription activation is a “step-up” process that requires Windows 10 Professional to have been successfully activated previously. Also, this occurs after the user logs on, but the user cannot log on unless the device tunnel is active. Catch 22!

Workaround

A multi-step process is required to address the limitations imposed by subscription activation. To begin, the device must be upgraded to Enterprise Edition, so the device tunnel is available for the initial user logon. This is a temporary, one-time upgrade to Enterprise Edition solely for the purpose of getting the device tunnel to connect and allow the user to authenticate.

To begin, download this PowerShell script and follow the steps below to deploy it to Windows 10 devices using Microsoft Endpoint Manager.

  1. Open the Microsoft Endpoint Manager console and click on Devices > Scripts.
  2. Click Add and select Windows 10.
  3. Enter a descriptive name for the configuration profile in the Name field.
  4. Enter a description for the profile in the Description field (optional).
  5. Click Next.
  6. Enter the location of the PowerShell script in the Script location field.
  7. Click Next, then assign the script to the appropriate device group(s) and click Add.

The PowerShell script will automatically install the KMS client setup key for Windows 10 Enterprise Edition, then restart the network interfaces to ensure the device tunnel starts. This will immediately upgrade the client device to Windows 10 Enterprise Edition and allow the user to authenticate.

Subscription activation with a step-up upgrade to Enterprise Edition still requires that Windows 10 Professional be activated first. To accomplish this, the embedded Windows 10 Professional key must be re-installed on the client. To do this, download this PowerShell script and follow the same steps listed previously to deploy a PowerShell script with Microsoft Endpoint Manager. However, this script should be assigned to users, not devices.

Once this script is run on the client it will be downgraded (temporarily) to Windows 10 Professional edition. After activation is successful, subscription activation will once again upgrade the client to Windows 10 Enterprise Edition.

Considerations

As you can see, the process of getting a Windows 10 Professional edition client onboarded in a hybrid Azure AD joined scenario is somewhat complex. My advice is to avoid this scenario whenever possible. Access to on-premises resources with the Always On VPN user tunnel with full single sign-on support is still available for users on Windows 10 devices that are Azure AD joined only. Unless there is a specific requirement to manage client devices using on-premises Active Directory and group policy, consider choosing native Azure AD join with Autopilot and manage devices using Microsoft Endpoint Manager exclusively.

Special Thanks

I would like to extend a special thank you to everyone in the Microsoft Endpoint Manager community who provided valuable input and feedback for me on this topic, especially John Marcum, Michael Niehaus, and Sandy Zeng. Follow the #MEMCM hashtag on Twitter to keep up on all things Microsoft Endpoint Manager.

Additional Information

Overview of Windows Autopilot

Windows 10 Subscription Activation

Windows 10 Always On VPN Class-Based Default Route and Microsoft Endpoint Manager

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Custom Cryptography in Microsoft Endpoint Manager

Always On VPN Class-Based Default Route and Intune

`Always On VPN Class-Based Default Route and IntuneIn a recent post, I described how to configure routing for Windows 10 Always On VPN clients. In that article, I shared guidance for disabling the class-based default route in favor of defining specific routes for the VPN client. While this is easy enough to do when you use custom XML (deployed via PowerShell, SCCM, or Intune), there is a known limitation when using the native Intune UI that could present some challenges.

Intune VPN Profile Configuration

Defining specific routes is easy to do in Intune using the native VPN configuration profile. In the Configuration settings expand Split Tunneling and click Enable. The administrator can then add routes by entering their Destination prefix and Prefix size, as shown here.

Always On VPN Class-Based Default Route and Intune

Class-Based Default Route

The limitation with using Intune to configure routes is that there is currently no option to disable the class-based default route as there is with custom XML. This means the routes shown in the example above will be added to the client, but the class-based route will also be added automatically, as shown here (class-based default route highlighted with the arrow).

Always On VPN Class-Based Default Route and Intune

Considerations

In most cases, the inclusion of the class-based default route along with the administrator-defined routes will not be a problem. However, in some scenarios, it could yield unexpected results. Specifically, Always On VPN clients may have unintended access to some networks over the VPN tunnel. This is most significant for the Always On VPN device tunnel, where it is common to limit access to only specific resources using individual host routes.

Workaround

Today there is no option to disable the class-based default route using the native Intune UI. Your only option is to deploy the Always On VPN profile using custom XML, as described here.

Additional Information

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Intune and Custom XML

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Intune and Custom XML

Windows 10 Always On VPN Routing Configuration

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Operation and Best Practices

%d bloggers like this: