Deployment Considerations for DirectAccess on Amazon Web Services (AWS)

Organizations are rapidly deploying Windows server infrastructure with public cloud providers such as Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Microsoft Azure. With traditional on-premises infrastructure now hosted in the cloud, DirectAccess is also being deployed there more commonly.

Supportability

Interestingly, Microsoft has expressly stated that DirectAccess is not formally supported on their own public cloud platform, Azure. However, there is no formal statement of non-support for DirectAccess hosted on other non-Microsoft public cloud platforms. With supportability for DirectAccess on AWS unclear, many companies are taking the approach that if it isn’t unsupported, then it must be supported. I’d suggest proceeding with caution, as Microsoft could issue formal guidance to the contrary in the future.

DirectAccess on AWS

Deploying DirectAccess on AWS is similar to deploying on premises, with a few notable exceptions, outlined below.

IP Addressing

It is recommended that an IP address be exclusively assigned to the DirectAccess server in AWS, as shown here.

Deployment Considerations for DirectAccess on Amazon Web Services (AWS)

Prerequisites Check

When first configuring DirectAccess, the administrator will encounter the following warning message.

“The server does not comply with some DirectAccess prerequisites. Resolve all issues before proceed with DirectAccess deployment.”

The warning message itself states that “One or more network adapters should be configured with a static IP address. Obtain a static address and assign it to the adapter.

Deployment Considerations for DirectAccess on Amazon Web Services (AWS)

IP addressing for virtual machines are managed entirely by AWS. This means the DirectAccess server will have a DHCP-assigned address, even when an IP address is specified in AWS. Assigning static IP addresses in the guest virtual machine itself is also not supported. However, this warning message can safely be ignored.

No Support for Load Balancing

It is not possible to create load-balanced clusters of DirectAccess servers for redundancy or scalability on AWS. This is because enabling load balancing for DirectAccess requires the IP address of the DirectAccess server be changed in the operating system, which is not supported on AWS. To eliminate single points of failure in the DirectAccess architecture or to add additional capacity, multisite must be enabled. Each additional DirectAccess server must be provisioned as an individual entry point.

Network Topology

DirectAccess servers on AWS can be provisioned with one or two network interfaces. Using two network interfaces is recommended, with the external network interface of the DirectAccess server residing in a dedicated perimeter/DMZ network. The external network interface must use either the Public or Private Windows firewall profile. DirectAccess will not work if the external interface uses the Domain profile. For the Public and Private profile to be enabled, domain controllers must not be reachable from the perimeter/DMZ network. Ensure the perimeter/DMZ network cannot access the internal network by restricting network access in EC2 using a Security Group, or on the VPC using a Network Access Control List (ACL) or custom route table settings.

External Connectivity

A public IPv4 address must be associated with the DirectAccess server in AWS. There are several ways to accomplish this. The simplest way is to assign a public IPv4 address to the virtual machine (VM). However, a public IP address can only be assigned to the VM when it is deployed initially and cannot be added later. Alternatively, an Elastic IP can be provisioned and assigned to the DirectAccess server at any time.

An ACL must also be configured for the public IP that restricts access from the Internet to only inbound TCP port 443. To provide additional protection, consider deploying an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) appliance like the Citrix NetScaler or F5 BIG-IP to enforce client certificate authentication for DirectAccess clients.

Network Location Server (NLS)

If an organization is hosting all of its Windows infrastructure in AWS and all clients will be remote, Network Location Server (NLS) availability becomes much less critical than with traditional on-premises deployments. For cloud-only deployments, hosting the NLS on the DirectAccess server is a viable option. It eliminates the need for dedicated NLS, reducing costs and administrative overhead. If multisite is configured, ensure that the NLS is not using a self-signed certificate, as this is unsupported.

Deployment Considerations for DirectAccess on Amazon Web Services (AWS)

However, for hybrid cloud deployments where on-premises DirectAccess clients share the same internal network with cloud-hosted DirectAccess servers, it is recommended that the NLS be deployed on dedicated, highly available servers following the guidance outlined here and here.

Client Provisioning

All supported DirectAccess clients will work with DirectAccess on AWS. If the domain infrastructure is hosted exclusively in AWS, provisioning clients can be performed using Offline Domain Join (ODJ). Provisioning DirectAccess clients using ODJ is only supported in Windows 8.x/10. Windows 7 clients cannot be provisioned using ODJ and must be joined to the domain using another form of remote network connectivity such as VPN.

Additional Resources

DirectAccess No Longer Supported in Microsoft Azure

Microsoft Server Software Support for Azure Virtual Machines

DirectAccess Network Location Server (NLS) Guidance

DirectAccess Network Location Server (NLS) Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

Provisioning DirectAccess Clients using Offline Domain Join (ODJ)

DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with F5 BIG-IP

Planning and Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Video Training Course

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Book

DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

Introduction

Communication between the DirectAccess client and server takes place exclusively over IPv6. When DirectAccess servers and/or clients are on the IPv4 Internet, an IPv6 transition technology must be employed to allow those clients to connect to the DirectAccess server. DirectAccess deployment best practices dictate that only the IP-HTTPS IPv6 transition technology be used. IP-HTTPS uses SSL/TLS for server authentication and optionally encryption. To improve security and performance for IP-HTTPS, an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) like the Citrix NetScaler can be configured to perform SSL offloading and client preauthentication for DirectAccess IP-HTTPS connections.

Please note that the following caveats apply when enabling SSL offload for DirectAccess clients:

  • Enabling SSL offload and IP-HTTPS preauthentication on an ADC for DirectAccess is formally unsupported by Microsoft.
  • SSL offload should not be enabled with DirectAccess is configured to use one-time password (OTP) authentication. Offloading SSL will break OTP functionality.

IP-HTTPS Challenges

The IP-HTTPS IPv6 transition technology is a simple and effective way to allow DirectAccess clients and servers to communicate by encapsulating IPv6 traffic in HTTP and routing it over the public IPv4 Internet. However, there are two critical issues with the default implementation of IP-HTTPS in DirectAccess. One is a security issue, the other affects performance.

Security

The DirectAccess server does not authenticate clients establishing IP-HTTPS connections. This could allow an unauthorized client to obtain an IPv6 address from the DirectAccess server using the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) process. With a valid IPv6 address, the unauthorized user could perform internal network reconnaissance or launch a variety of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks on the DirectAccess infrastructure and connected clients. More details here.

Performance

Windows 7 DirectAccess clients use encrypted cipher suites when establishing IP-HTTPS connections. However, the payload being transported is already encrypted using IPsec. This double encryption increases resource utilization on the DirectAccess server, reducing performance and limiting scalability. More details here.


Note: Beginning with Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8, Microsoft introduced support for null encryption for IP-HTTPS connections. This eliminates the needless double encryption, greatly improving scalability and performance for DirectAccess clients using IP-HTTPS.


SSL Offload for DirectAccess IP-HTTPS

The Citrix NetScaler can be configured to perform SSL offload to improve performance for Windows 7 DirectAccess clients using IP-HTTPS. Since DirectAccess does not natively support SSL offload, the NetScaler must be configured in a non-traditional way. While the NetScaler will be configured to terminate incoming IP-HTTPS SSL connections, it must also use SSL for the back-end connection to the DirectAccess server. However, the NetScaler will be configured only to use null cipher suites when connecting to the DirectAccess server. Even though Windows 7 clients will still perform double encryption to the NetScaler, this configuration effectively offloads from the server the heavy burden of double encrypting every IP-HTTPS connection for all connected DirectAccess clients. This results in reduced CPU utilization on the DirectAccess server, yielding better scalability and performance.

SSL Offload and Windows 8.x/10 Clients

Offloading SSL for Windows 8.x/10 clients will not improve performance because they already use null cipher suites for IP-HTTPS when connecting to a Windows Server 2012 or later DirectAccess server. However, terminating SSL on the NetScaler is still required to perform IP-HTTPS preauthentication.

Supported NetScaler Platforms for DirectAccess SSL Offloading

The following configuration for Citrix NetScaler can be performed on any release of the VPX virtual ADC platform. However, be advised that there is a known issue with older releases on the MDX and SDX hardware platforms that will prevent this from working. For MDX and SDX deployments, upgrading to release 11.1 build 50.10 or later will be required.

Configure Citrix NetScaler for IP-HTTPS SSL Offload

To enable SSL offloading for DirectAccess IP-HTTPS on the Citrix NetScaler, open the NetScaler management console, expand Traffic Management and Load Balancing, and then perform the following procedures in order.

Add Servers

  1. Click Servers.
  2. Click Add.
  3. In the Name field enter a descriptive name for the first DirectAccess server.
  4. Select IP Address.
  5. In the IP Address field enter the IP address of the first DirectAccess server.
  6. Click Create.
  7. Repeat these steps for any additional servers in the load-balanced cluster.

DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

Add Services

  1. Click Services.
  2. Click Add.
  3. In the Service Name field enter a descriptive name for the service.
  4. Select Existing Server from the Server drop-down list.
  5. Choose the first DirectAccess server in the cluster.
  6. Choose SSL from the Protocol drop-down list.
  7. Click Ok.DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler
  8. Edit SSL Parameters.
    1. In the Protocol section uncheck SSLv3.
    2. Click Ok.
  9. Edit SSL Ciphers.
    1. Click Remove All.
    2. Click Add.
    3. Type NULL in the Search Ciphers box.
    4. Check the box next to the first entry for SSL3-NULL-SHA.
    5.  Click the right arrow to add the cipher to the list.
    6. Click Ok.
    7. Click Done.
    8. Repeat these steps for any additional servers in the load-balanced cluster.DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

A warning message may be displayed indicating that no usable ciphers are configured on the SSL vserver/service. This message can be safely ignored.

DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

Add Virtual Server

  1. Click Virtual Servers.
    1. Click Add.
    2. In the Name field enter a descriptive name for the virtual server.
    3. Choose SSL from the Protocol drop-down list.
    4. In the IP Address field enter the IP address for the virtual server.
    5. Click Ok.DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

      Note: When enabling load balancing in DirectAccess, the IP address assigned to the first DirectAccess server is reallocated for use as the load balancing Virtual IP Address (VIP). Ideally this IP address will be assigned to the load balancing virtual server on the NetScaler. However, this is not a hard requirement. It is possible to configure the VIP on the NetScaler to reside on any subnet that the load balancer has an interface to. More details here.


  2. In the Services and Groups section click No Load Balancing Virtual Server Service Binding.
    1. Click on the Select Service field.
    2. Check all DirectAccess server services and click Select.
    3. Click Bind.
    4. Click Continue.
  3. In the Certificate section click No Server Certificate.
    1. Click on the Select Server Certificate field.
    2. Choose the certificate to be used for DirectAccess IP-HTTPS.
    3. Click Select.
    4. Click Bind.
    5. Click Continue.
  4. Edit SSL Ciphers.
    1. Click Remove All.
    2. Click Add.
    3. Type ECDHE in to the Search Ciphers box.
    4. Check the box next to TLS1-ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA.
    5. Click the right arrow to add the cipher to the list.
    6. Type NULL in to the Search Ciphers box.
    7. Check the box next to SSL3-NULL-SHA.
    8. Click the right arrow to add the cipher to the list.
    9. Click Ok.
    10. Click Done.DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

      Note: If Windows 8.x/10 clients are supported exclusively, SSL3-NULL-SHA is the only cipher suite required to be configured on the virtual server. If Windows 7 client support is required, the TLS1-ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA cipher suite should also be configured on the virtual server.


  5. Edit SSL Parameters.
    1. Uncheck SSLv3.
    2. Click Ok.

      Note: If Windows 8.x/10 clients are supported exclusively, TLSv1 can also be unchecked on the virtual server. If Windows 7 client support is required, TLSv1 must be enabled.


  6. In the Advanced Settings section click Persistence.
    1. Choose SSLSESSION.
    2. Enter 10 minutes for the Time-out (mins) value.
    3. Click Ok.
    4. Click Done.

Optional IP-HTTPS Preauthentication

To enable IP-HTTPS preauthentication to prevent unauthorized network access, perform the following procedures on the Citrix NetScaler appliance.

  1. Expand Traffic Management, Load Balancing, and then click Virtual Servers.
  2. Select the DirectAccess virtual server and click Edit.
    1. In the Certificate section click No CA Certificate.
    2. Click the Select CA Certificate field.
    3. Choose the certificate for the CA that issues certificates to DirectAccess clients and servers.

      Note: The CA certificate used for DirectAccess can be found by opening the Remote Access Management console, clicking Edit on Step 2, and then clicking Authentication. Alternatively, the CA certificate can be found by running the following PowerShell command.

      (Get-RemoteAccess).IPsecRootCertificate | Format-Table Thumbprint


    4. Click Select.
    5. Choose CRL Optional from the CRL and OCSP Check drop-down list.
    6. Click Bind.
  3. Edit SSL Parameters.
    1. Check the box next to Client Authentication.
    2. Choose Mandatory from the Client Certificate drop-down list.
    3. Click Ok.
    4. Click Done.
      DirectAccess SSL Offload and IP-HTTPS Preauthentication with Citrix NetScaler

Summary

Leveraging the advanced capabilities of the Citrix NetScaler ADC can improve performance when supporting Windows 7 clients and enhance security for all DirectAccess clients using IP-HTTPS. In terms of supportability, all of the changes described in this article are completely transparent and do not alter the native DirectAccess client or server configuration. If a Microsoft support engineer declines support due to this configuration, switching from SSL offload to SSL bridge is all that’s required to restore full supportability.

Additional Resources

NetScaler release 11.1 build 50.10 (requires login) – https://www.citrix.com/downloads/netscaler-adc/firmware/release-111-build-5010

Release notes for build 50.10 of NetScaler 11.1 release – https://www.citrix.com/content/dam/citrix/en_us/documents/downloads/netscaler-adc/NS_11_1_50_10.html

VIDEO: Enable Load Balancing for DirectAccess – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tdqgY9Y-uo

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS preauthentication using F5 BIG-IP – https://directaccess.richardhicks.com/2016/05/23/directaccess-ip-https-preauthentication-using-f5-big-ip/

DirectAccess SSL offload for IP-HTTPS using F5 BIG-IP – https://directaccess.richardhicks.com/2013/07/10/ssl-offload-for-ip-https-directaccess-traffic-from-windows-7-clients-using-f5-big-ip/

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 book – http://directaccessbook.com/

DirectAccess Load Balancing Tips and Tricks Webinar

KEMP Technologies LoadMaster Load BalancerEnabling load balancing for DirectAccess deployments is crucial for eliminating single points of failure and ensuring the highest levels of availability for the remote access solution. In addition, enabling load balancing allows DirectAccess administrators to quickly and efficiently add capacity in the event more processing power is required.

DirectAccess includes support for load balancing using integrated Windows Network Load Balancing (NLB) and external load balancers (physical or virtual). External load balancers are the recommended choice as they provide superior throughput, more granular traffic distribution, and greater visibility. External load balancers also more scalable, with support for much larger DirectAccess server clusters, up to 32 nodes. NLB is formally limited to 8 nodes, but because it operates at layer 2 in the OSI model and relies on broadcast heartbeat messages, it is effectively limited to 4 nodes.

The KEMP Technologies LoadMaster load balancer is an excellent choice for load balancing the DirectAccess workload. To learn more about configuring the LoadMaster with DirectAccess, join me for a free live webinar on Tuesday, August 16 at 10:00AM PDT where I’ll discuss DirectAccess load balancing in detail. I will also be sharing valuable tips, tricks, and best practices for load balancing DirectAccess.

DirectAccess Load Balancing Tips and Tricks Webinar

Don’t miss out. Register today!

Additional Resources

DirectAccess Load Balancing Overview

Load Balancing DirectAccess with the KEMP Loadmaster Load Balancer

Maximize your investment in Windows 10 with DirectAccess and the KEMP LoadMaster Load Balancer

KEMP LoadMaster DirectAccess Deployment Guide

DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Education

DirectAccess and Windows 10 in EducationIntroduction

DirectAccess provides seamless and transparent, always on remote network connectivity for managed Windows clients. It is commonly installed in large enterprises to provide better management for field-based assets, and to streamline the remote access experience for end users. Today, DirectAccess is a mature technology that is widely deployed across many verticals, but education is one that is often overlooked.

Benefits of DirectAccess

For commercial enterprises, the benefits of DirectAccess are many. Windows 10 DirectAccess clients have ubiquitous access to on-premises applications and data without requiring user interaction. This streamlined user access improves productivity and reduces helpdesk costs. DirectAccess is always on, allowing client machines to stay in contact with domain controllers and systems management servers, ensuring they are always managed.

DirectAccess in Education

Many of the same benefits DirectAccess provides for the enterprise are also important in the education sector. Often administrators for schools and colleges have many Windows-based machines that they must both manage and provide secure remote access for. In addition, they struggle with the same issues that enterprises do, such as maintaining configuration and security posture for devices that are predominantly remote.

Windows 10 and Education

Windows 10 November Update Available TodayThe Windows 10 Education SKU is a supported client operating system for DirectAccess, enabling educational institutions using this license to implement a remote access solution with DirectAccess using Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016. Implementing a DirectAccess remote access solution can result in significant cost savings, as DirectAccess requires no investments in proprietary hardware and has no associated per-user licensing.

Windows 10 Anniversary Update

Microsoft is making a concerted effort to address the education sector with new and compelling features to be included in the Windows 10 Anniversary Update, released earlier this week. For example, they have introduced apps that simplify the setup of school PCs. App discovery and purchasing are easier, and stylus support is improved. Native integration with Office 365 is another important factor. There are also a number of significant new security features that will make migrating to Windows 10 a worthy investment.

DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Education

Summary

If you are an administrator working for any educational institution and are struggling with maintaining and supporting your field-based Windows devices, consider a DirectAccess remote access solution today. With DirectAccess implemented, users will be more productive and remote machines better managed. DirectAccess can also be deployed using existing infrastructure, and it supports flexible network deployment along with many scalability features that will ensure the highest levels of availability.

Additional Resources

Video: DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Action
3 Important Things about Windows 10 and DirectAccess
DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together
DirectAccess Consulting Services
Book: Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

DirectAccess SQL Server High CPU Usage

UPDATE – March 14, 2016: Microsoft has published official guidance for implementing the changes outlined in this article using PowerShell. Details here.

Introduction

DirectAccess SQL Server High CPU UsageRADIUS and Inbox accounting are the two supported logging options for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 R2. When Inbox accounting is selected, a Windows Internal Database (WID) is provisioned. Part of the base operating system, WID is functionally similar to SQL Server Express.

SQL Server Utilization Issues

Over the last few months I’ve had a few customers reach out to me with a peculiar performance issue. For customers with very busy DirectAccess servers, where those servers have also been configured to use Inbox accounting, they’ve reported observing unusually high CPU utilization on the sqlservr.exe process.

DirectAccess SQL Server High CPU Usage
Image courtesy Thomas Vuylsteke. Used with permission. – setspn.blogspot.com

As luck would have it, Thomas Vuylsteke, a Microsoft Platforms Premiere Field Engineer (PFE), had already identified the issue and a workaround. Thomas traced the source of high CPU utilization on the sqlservr.exe process to a missing index on a session state table in the DirectAccess accounting database. If you are interested in learning how he performed the troubleshooting to identify and resolve this problem, you can read his entire blog post here.

Resolution

To resolve this issue, create an index on the Session Table in the DirectAccess database. Changes to WID must be made locally, as it is not remotely manageable. WID does not include a management interface, which means the SQL Server management tools would normally have to be installed. However, I’m not a fan of installing any extraneous software on the DirectAccess server, so thankfully one of the readers of Thomas’ excellent article on this subject, Fredrik Elmqvist, provided a very helpful alternative. Fredrik suggesting using the HeidiSQL tool, for which a fully portable version exists. This allows for changes to be made to the WID database without having to install any additional software.

Changes to WID

Begin by downloading the portable version of HeidiSQL here. Next, log on to the DirectAccess server as the local administrator. It is crucial that you must be the local administrator, not just a local or domain user with local administrator privileges. Extract the files from the download and copy them to the DirectAccess server, then follow these steps:

  1. Double-click heideisql.exe to launch the management tool.
  2. Click on New and then for the Network Type select Microsoft SQL Server (named pipe).
  3. For the Hostname / IP: enter \\.\pipe\MICROSOFT##WID\tsql\query.
  4. Select the option to Use Windows Authentication.
  5. Click Open to continue.DirectAccess SQL Server High CPU Usage
  6. Click the Query tab in the center console window and enter the following commands:
    Use RaAcctDb
    Create NonClustered Index IdxSessionTblSessionState on SessionTable (SessionState,ConnectionID)
  7. Click the Run icon in the tool bar or press F9. This will execute the code and create the missing index on the Session Table in the DirectAccess database.DirectAccess SQL Server High CPU Usage
  8. Confirm the index was created by clearing the previous query or creating a new query and then entering the following commands:
    select * from sys.indexes
    where name like ‘idx%’
    order by name ascDirectAccess SQL Server High CPU Usage

Summary
Once the change has been made, sqlservr.exe CPU utilization should return to normal. If you have multiple DirectAccess servers configured in a load-balanced array or in a multisite configuration, be sure to repeat these steps on each DirectAccess server in the organization.

3 Important Things You Need to Know about Windows 10 and DirectAccess

DirectAccess and Windows 10 - Better TogetherDirectAccess has been with us for quite some time know, having been originally introduced with Windows Server 2008 R2, later enhanced with Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG) 2010, and finally integrated in to the base operating system in Windows Server 2012 R2. Client support for DirectAccess begins with Windows 7 (Enterprise or Ultimate), and also includes Windows 8.x (Enterprise) and Windows 10 (Enterprise or Education).

Although Windows 7 clients are supported for DirectAccess, Windows 10 is highly preferred. Here are three important things you need to know about using Windows 10 with DirectAccess.

  1. Windows 10 Provides Improved Performance and Scalability – Windows 10 includes support for null encryption when using the IP-HTTPS IPv6 transition protocol. This eliminates the needless double-encryption performed by Windows 7 clients, and dramatically reduces the protocol overhead for clients connecting behind port-restricted firewalls. DirectAccess servers can support many more concurrent IP-HTTPS sessions with Windows 10, and it has the added benefit of making the more secure perimeter/DMZ deployment behind an edge security device performing NAT much more attractive.
  2. Windows 10 Supports Geographic Redundancy – Windows 10 includes full support for DirectAccess multisite deployments. Where Windows 7 clients had to be assigned to a single entry point, Windows 10 clients are aware of all entry points in the organization. They are able to automatically select the nearest entry point on startup, and transparently failover to another site if the current site becomes unavailable.
  3. Windows 10 Features an Enhanced Management Experience – From a troubleshooting and support perspective, Windows 10 makes things much easier. The DirectAccess connectivity assistant, an optional component for Windows 7, is now fully integrated with the Windows 10 UI. PowerShell is greatly improved and now includes many native DirectAccess configuration and troubleshooting commands.

As you can see, there are a number of significant advantages for using Windows 10 with DirectAccess. Windows 10 now supports all of the enterprise features of DirectAccess, including geographic redundancy and performance and scalability improvements. Windows 10 is also easier to troubleshoot and manage. If you’re still supporting Windows 7, DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 R2 can certainly support them. However, without a doubt the best experience, both from an administrator’s and the end user’s perspective, is with Windows 10. Just one more reason to begin planning your migration to Windows 10 with DirectAccess today!

Need assistance with implementing  DirectAccess with Windows 10? I can help! More details here.

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

With the release of Windows 10, many organizations who chose to skip Windows 8 are now beginning to deploy this new client operating systemn. To maximize investment in Windows 10, DirectAccess can be leveraged to provide employees with seamless and transparent, always on, secure remote corporate network connectivity. DirectAccess has been around for many years, and today the most popular DirectAccess client is Windows 7. However, Windows 10 provides better support for DirectAccess features that enhance performance and availability, while at the same making it easier to implement and support. Windows 10 opens up many new and compelling deployment scenarios for small businesses to large scale enterprises.

Full Support for Geographic Redundancy

Without a doubt the most important DirectAccess feature Windows 10 supports is automatic entry point selection and transparent failover for multisite deployments. DirectAccess multisite deployment provides essential geographic redundancy for organizations with multiple physical locations. Windows 7 has only minimal support for multisite deployment, with clients required to be assigned to a single entry point. Windows 10 clients are aware of all entry points and will intelligently select the closest entry point when establishing a DirectAccess connection. If the entry point becomes unavailable during the connection, Windows 10 clients will transparently connect to another entry point automatically.

Better Scalability and Performance

Windows 10, like Windows 8 before it, includes support for IP-HTTPS null encryption. This feature greatly improves scalability on the DirectAccess server by eliminating the needless double encryption that Windows 7 clients perform. This reduces resource consumption on the server and enables the server to support many more DirectAccess client connections.

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

Enhanced Supportability

Many will also appreciate Windows 10’s built-in DirectAccess connectivity status indicator. No longer will administrators have to deploy, manage, and maintain additional software to provide this essential functionality.

To access DirectAccess information in Windows 10, press Window Key + I, click Network & Internet, and then click the DirectAccess tab. Here you will find vital details about DirectAccess configuration and status such as connection state, currently connected entry point, and a site selection drop down box (if manual site selection is enabled by an administrator). In addition you can generate and collect log information for troubleshooting purposes.

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

Native PowerShell Support

Anyone tasked with troubleshooting DirectAccess configuration and connectivity issues will appreciate the native PowerShell integration with DirectAccess in Windows 10. With just a few commands a wealth of information about DirectAccess configuration and connectivity status can be obtained.

Need to quickly determine if a Windows 10 client has been provisioned for DirectAccess successfully?

Get-DAClientExperienceConfiguration

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

Has the Windows 10 client connected successfully? If not, why?

Get-DAConnectionStatus

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

Need to identify the Network Location Server (NLS) the client is configured to use?

Get-NCSIPolicyConfiguration

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

Looking for DirectAccess multisite entry point details and connection status?

Get-DAEntryPointTableItem

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

PKI Optional (But Recommended)

Finally, when Windows 10 (and Windows 8.x) clients are supported exclusively a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is optional. Here instead the Kerberos Proxy is leveraged to perform DirectAccess client authentication, which reduces infrastructure requirements by eliminating the need for a PKI. However, this configuration offers only limited support for DirectAccess features. For example, a PKI is still required if any Windows 7 clients are deployed. Also, PKI is required to support features such as one-time password (OTP) authentication, Microsoft Network Access Protection (NAP) integration, load balancing (integrated or external), force tunneling, and multisite configuration.

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

For optimum security and maximum deployment flexibility it is recommended that PKI be used to manage certificates for all DirectAccess deployments including those supporting only Windows 8.x and Windows 10 clients.

Summary

DirectAccess and Windows 10 are much better together. Windows 10 provides full support for the geographic load balancing features of DirectAccess and at the same time offers improved scalability and performance. Windows 10 also makes supporting and troubleshooting DirectAccess clients much easier. And for smaller deployments, Windows 10 can lower the barrier to entry for organizations considering DirectAccess by eliminating the need for a full PKI deployment.

Additional Resources

Video: DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Action
DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Education
Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Book
Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Video Training Course
DirectAccess Consulting Services

More Information

Have a question about DirectAccess? Fill out the form below and I’ll get in touch with you.

PAL v2.3.3 Now with Forefront UAG 2010 Support

Recently the Performance Analysis of Logs (PAL) tool was updated and now includes a threshold file for Forefront UAG 2010. PAL is an essential utility that can make troubleshooting performance issues or capacity planning dramatically easier. I’ve written about using PAL on Forefront TMG 2010 in the past, and using PAL with Forefront UAG 2010 will be very similar. You can download the latest release of PAL at pal.codeplex.com.

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