Always On VPN PowerShell Script Issues in Windows 11

Many administrators are now beginning to test Always On VPN functionality on the latest Microsoft Windows client operating system, Windows 11. Initially, Microsoft had some issues with provisioning and managing Always On VPN profiles on Windows 11 using Microsoft Endpoint Manager/Intune, but those have been resolved. However, some lingering problems may delay enterprise deployments of Always On VPN on Windows 11 for some organizations, specifically those using PowerShell with Active Directory group policy startup scripts or System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM).

MakeProfile.ps1

Microsoft has published guidance for deploying Always On VPN profiles using PowerShell with their MakeProfile.ps1 script. This script extracts configuration details from a template VPN profile to create another PowerShell script called VPN_Profile.ps1, which is used to create the Always On VPN profile. SCCM administrators commonly use VPN_Proifle.ps1 to deploy Always On VPN profiles. However, running this script on Windows 11 fails and returns the following error message.

“Unable to create [VPN profile name] profile: A general error occurred that is not covered by a more specific code.”

This issue appears to be related to a problem with the WMI-to-CSP bridge, specifically enumerating the MDM_VPNv2_01 class in the root\cimv2\mdm\dmmap namespace. Here you can see the template VPN profile with PowerShell and Get-VpnConnection.

However, attempts to view the MDM_VPNv2_01 class of this VPN profile using PowerShell and Get-CimInstance fail.

New-AovpnConnection.ps1

Interestingly, administrators may find that my Always On VPN PowerShell deployment script works more reliably on Windows 11, although not always. In my experience, I’ve found that it sometimes fails once (profile is loaded, but the configuration is incomplete), then works after deleting the profile and creating it again. If the Microsoft-provided script isn’t working, give mine a try and see if it works better for you.

Note: When deploying Always On VPN profiles using my PowerShell deployment script via Active Directory startup scripts, it seems to fail consistently for some reason. Go figure. 😉

Remove-AovpnConnection.ps1

The issues described previously with Windows 11 are also negatively affecting some of my other PowerShell scripts. For example, running Remove-Aovpnconnection.ps1 on Windows 11 fails and returns the following error message.

“A general error occurred that is not covered by a more specific error code.”

Current Status

Microsoft is currently aware of this issue. However, I am aware of no timeframe for resolution at the time of this writing. Hopefully, Microsoft addresses this soon so organizations can move forward with their Windows 11 migration projects.

Additional Information

Microsoft Windows Always On VPN Windows 11 Issues with Microsoft Endpoint Manager/Intune

Microsoft Windows Always On VPN Profile Deployment Script

Microsoft Windows Always On VPN Remove Always On VPN Profile Script

Always On VPN PowerShell Script Repository on GitHub

Always On VPN Load Balancing Deployment Guide for Kemp Load Balancers

Always On VPN Load Balancing Deployment Guide for Kemp Load BalancersI’m pleased announce that Kemp has released their Load Balancing Deployment Guide for Windows 10 Always On VPN. Authored by yours truly, this guide provides detailed, prescriptive guidance for configuring the Kemp LoadMaster load balancer to provide important scalability and eliminate critical points of failure in Always On VPN deployments.

Configuration Guidance

Included in the guide are configuration steps for load balancing VPN servers using IKEv2 and SSTP using Kemp LoadMaster. Crucial details for IKEv2 load balancing as well as SSL offload for SSTP are covered in detail. In addition, the guide includes information about load balancing important supporting infrastructure services such as the Network Policy Server (NPS). Finally, guidance is included for enabling active/passive or active/active load balancing as well as geographic load balancing for multisite Always On VPN deployments.

Always On VPN Load Balancing Deployment Guide for Kemp Load Balancers

Download

You can download the Windows 10 Always On VPN load balancing deployment guide for Kemp LoadMaster load balancers here.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Load Balancing Deployment Guide for Kemp LoadMaster Load Balancers

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing with the Kemp LoadMaster Load Balancer

 

 

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShellWindows 10 Always On VPN and DirectAccess both provide seamless, transparent, always on remote network access for Windows clients. However, Always On VPN is provisioned to the user, not the machine as it is with DirectAccess. This presents a challenge for deployment scenarios that require the VPN connection to be established before the user logs on. For example, pre-logon connectivity is required to support remote logon without cached credentials. To address this issue and to provide feature parity with DirectAccess, Microsoft introduced support for a device tunnel configuration option beginning with Windows 10 version 1709 (Fall creators update).

Learn Windows 10 Always On VPN today! Register for an upcoming Always On VPN Hands-On Training class. More details here!

Prerequisites

To support an Always On VPN device tunnel, the client computer must be running Windows 10 Enterprise or Education version 1709 (Fall creators update) or later. It must also be domain-joined and have a computer certificate with the Client Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) issued by the organization’s Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

In addition, only the built-in Windows VPN client is supported for Always On VPN device tunnel. Although Windows 10 Always On VPN user connections can be configured using various third-party VPN clients, they are not supported for use with the device tunnel.

VPN ProfileXML

The Always On VPN device tunnel is provisioned using an XML file. You can download a sample VPN ProfileXML file here. Make any changes required for your environment such as VPN server hostnames, routes, traffic filters, and remote address ranges. Optionally include the trusted network detection code, if required. Do not change the protocol type or authentication methods, as these are required.

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/remote/remote-access/vpn/vpn-device-tunnel-config#configure-the-vpn-device-tunnel

Once the ProfileXML file is created, it can be deployed using Intune, System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM), or PowerShell. In this post I’ll cover how to configure Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel using PowerShell.

Client Configuration

Download the PowerShell script located here and then copy it to the target client computer. The Always On VPN device tunnel must be configured in the context of the local system account. To accomplish this, it will be necessary to use PsExec, one of the PsTools included in the Sysinternals suite of utilities. Download PsExec here, copy it to the target machine, and then run the following command in an elevated PowerShell command window.

PsExec.exe -i -s C:\windows\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Another elevated PowerShell window will open, this one now running in the context of the local system account. In this window, navigate to the folder where you copied the PowerShell script and XML file to. Run the PowerShell script and specify the name of the ProfileXML file, as shown below.

VPN_Profile_Device.ps1 -xmlFilePath .\profileXML_device.XML -ProfileName DeviceTunnel

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

To verify creation of the VPN device tunnel, run the following PowerShell command.

Get-VpnConnection -AllUserConnection

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Note: In Windows 10 releases prior to 1903 the ConnectionStatus will always report Disconnected. This has been fixed in Windows 10 1903.

Server Configuration

If you are using Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016 Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) as your VPN server, you must enable machine certificate authentication for VPN connections and define a root certification authority for which incoming VPN connections will be authenticated with. To do this, open an elevated PowerShell command and run the following commands.

$VPNRootCertAuthority = “Common Name of trusted root certification authority”
$RootCACert = (Get-ChildItem -Path cert:LocalMachine\root | Where-Object {$_.Subject -Like “*$VPNRootCertAuthority*” })
Set-VpnAuthProtocol -UserAuthProtocolAccepted Certificate, EAP -RootCertificateNameToAccept $RootCACert -PassThru

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Limitations

Using PowerShell to provision an Always On VPN device tunnel is helpful for initial testing and small pilot deployments, but it does not scale very well. For production deployments it is recommended that Microsoft Intune be used to deploy Always On VPN device tunnel.

Deploy Device Tunnel with Intune

Guidance for deploying an Always On VPN device tunnel using Microsoft Intune can be found here. You can also view the following demonstration video that includes detailed guidance for provisioning the Always On VPN device tunnel using Microsoft Intune.

Summary

Once the Always On VPN device tunnel is configured, the client computer will automatically establish the connection as soon as an active Internet connection is detected. This will enable remote logins for users without cached credentials, and allow administrators to remotely manage Always On VPN clients without requiring a user to be logged on at the time.

Additional Information

Deploy Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel using Microsoft Intune

VIDEO: Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel using Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Does Not Connect Automatically

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Does Not Appear in the UI

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training

 

 

 

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