DirectAccess No Longer Supported in Microsoft Azure

DirectAccess No Longer Supported on Windows Server in AzureMicrosoft has historically not supported DirectAccess running on Windows Server in the Microsoft Azure public cloud. In the past, this was due to limitations imposed by the underlying cloud infrastructure, as I documented here. When Microsoft moved from the old service manager model (classic) to the newer resource manager infrastructure, many of the issues that prevented the DirectAccess workload from being stable were resolved. There are still some fundamental limitations to deploying DirectAccess in Azure as I documented here, but for the most part it was a workable solution. In fact, Microsoft even updated their support statement for DirectAccess on Azure, quietly removing it from the unsupported roles list in July 2016.

Sadly, Microsoft has reversed their decision on the support of DirectAccess in Azure. As many of you have noticed or commented on some of my posts, Microsoft recently added clarification on support for remote access on Windows Server in Azure, explicitly indicating that DirectAccess was not included in Remote Access support.

Reference: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/2721672

You’ll be glad to know that DirectAccess is indeed supported in Amazon’s public cloud infrastructure, Amazon Web Services (AWS). I’ll be drafting some guidance for deploying DirectAccess in AWS soon. Stay tuned!

Additional Resources

Azure Resource Manager vs. Classic Deployment: Understand Deployment Models and the State of your Resources

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Implementing DirectAccess in Windows Server 2016 Book

DirectAccess Training at TechMentor Conference Orlando 2016

Live! 360 Orlando 2016I am pleased to announce that I’ll be participating in the upcoming TechMentor conference in Orlando, FL in December. The TechMentor conference is part of the larger Live!360 event and offers a compelling agenda of training for IT professionals. I’ll be delivering the following sessions that are focused on providing secure remote access using Windows Server 2016.

TMT01 – Implementing DirectAccess in Windows Server 2016
TMT04 – DirectAccess Troubleshooting Deep Dive
TMT11 – Client-based VPN in Azure with Windows Server 2016

Don’t miss out on this outstanding conference. Register today and save $500.00!

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Introduction

DirectAccess Now a Supported Workload in Microsoft AzureMany organizations are preparing to implement DirectAccess on Microsoft’s public cloud infrastructure. Deploying DirectAccess in Azure is fundamentally no different than implementing it on premises, with a few important exceptions (see below). This article provides essential guidance for administrators to configure this unique workload in Azure.

Important Note: There has been much confusion regarding the supportability of DirectAccess in Azure. Historically it has not been supported. Recently, it appeared briefly that Microsoft reversed their earlier decision and was in fact going to support it. However, the Microsoft Server Software Suport for Microsoft Azure Virtual Machines document has once again been revised to indicate that DirectAccess is indeed no longer formally supported on Azure. More details can be found here.

Azure Configuration

The following is guidance for configuring network interfaces, IP address assignments, public DNS, and network security groups for deploying DirectAccess in Azure.

Virtual Machine

Deploy a virtual machine in Azure with sufficient resources to meet expected demand. A minimum of two CPU cores should be provisioned. A VM with 4 cores is recommended. Premium storage on SSD is optional, as DirectAccess is not a disk intensive workload.

Network Interfaces

It is recommended that an Azure VM with a single network interface be provisioned for the DirectAccess role. This differs from on-premises deployments where two network interfaces are preferred because deploying VMs in Azure with two NICs is prohibitively difficult. At the time of this writing, Azure VMs with multiple network interfaces can only be provisioned using PowerShell, Azure CLI, or resource manager templates. In addition, Azure VMs with multiple NICs cannot belong to the same resource group as other VMs. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, not all Azure VMs support multiple NICs.

Internal IP Address

Static IP address assignment is recommended for the DirectAccess VM in Azure. By default, Azure VMs are initially provisioned using dynamic IP addresses, so this change must be made after the VM has been provisioned. To assign a static internal IP address to an Azure VM, open the Azure management portal and perform the following steps:

  1. Click Virtual machines.
  2. Select the DirectAccess server VM.
  3. Click Network Interfaces.
  4. Click on the network interface assigned to the VM.
  5. Under Settings click IP configurations.
  6. Click Ipconfig1.
  7. In the Private IP address settings section choose Static for the assignment method.
  8. Enter an IP address for the VM.
  9. Click Save.

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Public IP Address

The DirectAccess VM in Azure must have a public IP address assigned to it to allow remote client connectivity. To assign a public IP address to an Azure VM, open the Azure management portal and perform the following steps:

  1. Click Virtual machines.
  2. Select the DirectAccess server VM.
  3. Click Network Interfaces.
  4. Click on the network interface assigned to the VM.
  5. Under Settings click IP configurations.
  6. Click Ipconfig1.
  7. In the Public IP address settings section click Enabled.
  8. Click Configure required settings.
  9. Click Create New and provide a descriptive name for the public IP address.
  10. Choose an address assignment method.
  11. Click Ok and Save.

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Public DNS

If the static IP address assignment method was chosen for the public IP address, create an A resource record in public DNS that resolves to this address. If the dynamic IP address assignment method was chosen, create a CNAME record in public DNS that maps to the public hostname for the DirectAccess server. To assign a public hostname to the VM in Azure, open the Azure management portal and perform the following steps:

  1. Click Virtual machines.
  2. Select the DirectAccess server VM.
  3. Click Overview.
  4. Click Public IP address/DNS name label.Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure
  5. Under Settings click Configuration.
  6. Choose an assignment method (static or dynamic).
  7. Enter a DNS name label.
  8. Click Save.

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Note: The subject of the SSL certificate used for the DirectAccess IP-HTTPS listener must match the name of the public DNS record (A or CNAME) entered previously. The SSL certificate does not need to match the Azure DNS name label entered here.

Network Security Group

A network security group must be configured to allow IP-HTTPS traffic inbound to the DirectAccess server on the public IP address. To make the required changes to the network security group, open the Azure management portal and perform the following steps:

  1. Click Virtual machines.
  2. Select the DirectAccess server VM.
  3. Click Network interfaces.
  4. Click on the network interface assigned to the VM.
  5. Under Settings click Network security group.
  6. Click the network security group assigned to the network interface.
  7. Click Inbound security rules.
  8. Click Add and provide a descriptive name for the new rule.
  9. Click Any for Source.
  10. From the Service drop-down list choose HTTPS.
  11. Click Allow for Action.
  12. Click Ok.

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Note: It is recommended that the default-allow-rdp rule be removed if it is not needed. At a minimum, scope the rule to allow RDP only from trusted hosts and/or networks.

DirectAccess Configuration

When performing the initial configuration of DirectAccess using the Remote Access Management console, the administrator will encounter the following warning message.

“One or more network adapters should be configured with a static IP address. Obtain a static address and assign it to the adapter.”

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

This message can safely be ignored because Azure infrastructure handles all IP address assignment for hosted VMs.

The public name of the DirectAccess server entered in the Remote Access Management console must resolve to the public IP address assigned to the Azure VM, as described previously.

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Additional Considerations

When deploying DirectAccess in Azure, the following limitations should be considered.

Load Balancing

It is not possible to enable load balancing using Windows Network Load Balancing (NLB) or an external load balancer. Enabling load balancing for DirectAccess requires changing static IP address assignments in the Windows operating system directly, which is not supported in Azure. This is because IP addresses are assigned dynamically in Azure, even when the option to use static IP address assignment is chosen in the Azure management portal. Static IP address assignment for Azure virtual machines are functionally similar to using DHCP reservations on premises.

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Note: Technically speaking, the DirectAccess server in Azure could be placed behind a third-party external load balancer for the purposes of performing SSL offload or IP-HTTPS preauthentication, as outlined here and here. However, load balancing cannot be enabled in the Remote Access Management console and only a single DirectAccess server per entry point can be deployed.

Manage Out

DirectAccess manage out using native IPv6 or ISATAP is not supported in Azure. At the time of this writing, Azure does not support IPv6 addressing for Azure VMs. In addition, ISATAP does not work due to limitations imposed by the underlying Azure network infrastructure.

Summary

For organizations moving infrastructure to Microsoft’s public cloud, formal support for the DirectAccess workload in Azure is welcome news. Implementing DirectAccess in Azure is similar to on-premises with a few crucial limitations. By following the guidelines outlined in this article, administrators can configure DirectAccess in Azure to meet their secure remote access needs with a minimum of trouble.

Additional Resources

Implementing DirectAccess in Windows Server 2016
Fundamentals of Microsoft Azure 2nd Edition
Microsoft Azure Security Infrastructure
DirectAccess Multisite with Azure Traffic Manager
DirectAccess Consulting Services

DirectAccess Now a Supported Workload in Microsoft Azure

DirectAccess Now a Supported Workload in Microsoft Azure

Important Update! Microsoft has recently reversed their decision to support DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure. The Microsoft Server Software Support for Microsoft Azure Vitual Machines document has once again been revised to indicate that DirectAccess is formally unsuported in Azure.

Update: Detailed guidance for deploying DirectAccess in Azure can be found here.

This is great news for organizations moving their infrastructure to the Microsoft Azure public cloud! Microsoft recently made some important changes to their published support statement for server software running on Azure virtual machines. Although no formal announcement was made, they quietly removed DirectAccess from the list of unsupported roles for Windows Server 2012 R2.

DirectAccess Now a Supported Workload in Microsoft Azure

I’ve performed some limited testing with DirectAccess using Resource Manager VMs in Microsoft Azure and it appears to be stable. In addition, some of the challenges I encountered previously when implementing DirectAccess in Azure using Classic VMs have now been resolved. I’ll be publishing some guidance for deploying DirectAccess in Azure soon.

Additional Resources

Deploying DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure
Implementing DirectAccess in Windows Server 2016
Fundamentals of Microsoft Azure 2nd Edition
Microsoft Azure Security Infrastructure
DirectAccess Multisite with Azure Traffic Manager

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager

Introduction

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic ManagerTo provide geographic redundancy, DirectAccess can be deployed in a multisite configuration. In this scenario, Windows 8.x and Windows 10 clients are aware of all entry points in the enterprise and will automatically select the nearest available entry point to connect to. The nearest entry point is defined as the one that responds the quickest. When a Windows 8.x or Windows 10 client attempts to establish DirectAccess connectivity, an HTTP GET is sent to all entry points and the client will select the one with the shortest Round Trip Time (RTT) for the request.

Note: Windows 7 clients can be provisioned when DirectAccess is configured for multisite access, but they must be assigned to an individual entry point.

Challenges

There are a number of challenges that come with the default multisite configuration. Choosing an entry point based solely on network latency is rather simplistic and can often produce unexpected results. It also lacks support for granular traffic distribution or active/passive configuration.

GSLB

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic ManagerFor the best experience, DirectAccess can be configured to use a Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) solution to enhance transparent site selection and failover for Windows 8.x and Windows 10 clients. Commonly this is implemented using an on-premises appliance (Citrix NetScaler, F5 Global Traffic Manager, Kemp LoadMaster, A10 Thunder, etc.). These solutions offer exceptional control over DirectAccess traffic distribution, but they add expense and complexity.

Azure Traffic Manager

Azure Traffic Manager is a cloud-based GSLB solution that is a simple and cost-effective alternative to dedicated on-premises appliances. While it does not offer all of the features that GSLB appliances provide, it does provide better traffic distribution options than the default configuration. Importantly, it enables active/passive failover, which is a common requirement not supported natively with DirectAccess.

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager

Traffic Manager Configuration

In the Azure portal (the new one, not the old one!) click New, Networking, and then Traffic Manager profile.

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager

Provide a name and select a Routing method.

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager

Routing method options are Performance, Weighted and Priority.

  • Performance. Select this option to enable clients to connect to the entry point with the lowest network latency.
  • Weighted. Select this option to enable clients to prefer some entry points more than others. Assign a weight value of 1 to 1000 for each entry point. Higher values have more preference. Values for entry points can be the same, if desired.
  • Priority. Select this option to enable clients to connect to a primary entry point, then fail over to a secondary or tertiary entry point in the event of an outage. Assign a priority value of 1 to 1000 for each entry point. Lower values take precedence. Each entry point must be assigned a unique priority value.

Click Create when finished. Next click Settings for the new traffic manager profile and click Configuration. Change Protocol to HTTPS, Port to 443, and Path to /IPHTTPS. Click Save when finished.

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager

Next click Endpoints and click Add. Select External endpoint from the drop down list, provide a descriptive name, and then enter the Fully-Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of the first DirectAccess entry point. When using the Performance routing method, choose a location that best represents the geography where the DirectAccess entry point is located. When using the Weighted or Priority routing methods, specify an appropriate value accordingly. Click Ok when finished. Repeat these steps for each entry point in the organization.

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager

DirectAccess Configuration

In the Remote Access Management console, highlight DirectAccess and VPN below Configuration in the navigation tree and then click Configure Multisite Settings below Multisite Deployment in the Tasks pane. Click Global Load Balancing and choose Yes, use global load balancing. Enter the FQDN of the Azure Traffic Manager profile and click Next, and then click Commit.

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager

Note: An SSL certificate with a subject name matching that of the GSLB FQDN is not required.

In some cases, the management console may report that global load balancing addresses cannot be identified automatically for some or all entry points.

DirectAccess Multisite Geographic Redundancy with Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager

If this occurs, it will be necessary to run the Set-DAEntryPoint PowerShell cmdlet to assign GLSB IP addresses to each entry point. The GSLB IP address is the public IPv4 address that the entry point public hostname resolves to.

Set-DAEntryPoint -Name [entrypoint_name] -GslbIP [external_ip_address]

For example:

Set-DAEntryPoint -Name "US West" -GslbIP 203.0.113.195
Set-DAEntryPoint -Name "US East" -GslbIP 198.51.100.21

Summary

DirectAccess includes native functionality to enable geographic load balancing for Windows 8.x and Windows 10 clients. The site selection process used by DirectAccess clients in this scenario is basic, and has the potential to yield unexpected results. Azure Traffic Manager is a simple, cost-effective alternative to dedicated on-premises GSLB appliances. It can be integrated with DirectAccess to address some of the shortcomings with the native entry point selection process.

Additional Resources

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Update: Microsoft is no longer supporting DirectAccess in Azure. More details here.

Recently I wrote an article for CloudComputingAdmin.com about how to configure a basic test lab in Microsoft Azure using Windows Server 2012 R2. After I completed the article, I decided to investigate whether DirectAccess could be configured successfully in Azure. To begin, I looked through the list of unsupported roles and, unfortunately, DirectAccess is on the list. However, just because it isn’t supported doesn’t mean it won’t work, so I proceeded to set up a Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess server to see what would happen. Based on my experience, I can tell you that it does indeed work. However, I quickly learned why it is not supported. There are a number of things unique to the Azure hosting environment that prevent DirectAccess from working without interruption. Although these challenges might prevent you from using DirectAccess in a production environment in Azure, it is certainly viable for short-term testing and evaluation of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 R2. Be advised that not all DirectAccess deployment scenarios can be configured in Azure. For example, it is not possible to configure DirectAccess in a public-facing edge configuration. In fact, Azure virtual machines can have only a single NIC, which limits the deployment model to NAT/DMZ configuration. In addition, broadcast and multicast traffic are not supported in a conventional way in Azure, preventing load-balanced clusters and manage out functionality using ISATAP from working correctly.

Configuring the DirectAccess Server in Azure

Note: The DirectAccess server must be joined to a domain, so the assumption is that you’ve configured at least one domain controller somewhere. It can be located in Azure itself, or on-premises with site-to-site VPN established between the on-premises network and the Azure virtual network. Guidance for deploying a Windows Server 2012 R2 domain controller in Azure can be found here. Guidance for configuring site-to-site VPN to Azure using Windows Server 2012 R2 can be found here.

To begin, provision a Windows Server 2012 R2 virtual machine in Microsoft Azure, and be sure to assign a static IP address to the VM using PowerShell as described here. Once the VM is provisioned and available, join it to your domain, install your certificates, and then install the DirectAccess-VPN role. When you first open the Remote Access management console you’ll receive the following errors:

The server does not comply with some DirectAccess prerequisites.
Resolve all issues before proceeding with DirectAccess deployment.

Warning : One or more network adapters should be configured with a static
IP address. Obtain a static address and assign it to the adapter.

Error: The client cannot connect to the destination specified in the
request. Verify that the service on the destination is running and is
accepting requests. Consult the logs and documentation for the
WS-Management service running on the destination, most commonly IIS or
WinRM. If the destination is the WinRM service, run the following
command on the destination to analyze and configure the WinRM service:
"winrm quickconfig".

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

As long as you’ve configured the VM with a static IP address in Azure you can disregard the warning about static IP address assignment. Static IP address assignment in Azure works effectively like a dynamic IP address reservation which will not change, and is sufficient for our purposes here. To resolve the second error, open an elevated command prompt and enter the following command:

winrm quickconfig

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Click on Check prerequisites again and you’ll find that the warning about static IP address assignment still persists, but you can now click Next to proceed with configuring DirectAccess.

http://azure.microsoft.com/blog/2014/05/14/reserved-ip-addresses/

In the Azure management portal, note the Public Virtual IP (VIP) address assigned to the VM. Configure public DNS with the hostname you entered when configuring DirectAccess (which is used by clients to connect to the DirectAccess server) to resolve to this IP address.

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

To configure external access to the VM for DirectAccess clients click Endpoints and click Add. Select the option to Add a standalone endpoint and then select HTTPS and TCP. Accept the defaults of 443 for both the public and private ports.

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Provisioning DirectAccess Clients

At this point you should now be able to provision DirectAccess clients. If you’ve configured your DirectAccess lab entirely in Azure, you’ll need to use the offline domain join tool to provision clients. Once you’ve successfully provisioned DirectAccess clients, they should be able to establish connectivity through the DirectAccess server.

Azure DirectAccess Issues

Turning off the DirectAccess virtual machine is when the problems begin. Specifically, stopping the virtual machine and deallocating it, which happens when you choose to shut down the VM via the Azure management portal, tends to break things. However, stopping the DirectAccess server from within the virtual machine itself (using Stop-Computer, shutdown.exe, or the GUI) does not cause any problems, and the DirectAccess server can remain shut down (but not deallocated) for an extended period of time without issue.

When you restart a VM that was previously stopped and deallocated, you may find that the Remote Access management console fails to connect, returning the following error message:

Configuration Load Error

A connection cannot be established to server . Check that the server
is available, the Remote Access role is installed, and that you have
permissions to access the server.

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Running winrm quickconfig again restores access to the management console. You’ll notice, however, that DirectAccess is not functioning in spite of the fact that the management console states it is. You’ll also find that there are a number of services in an unknown state.

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

This happens because the after the VM is restarted after being deallocated, it receives a new virtual NIC. When the system starts, the DirectAccess configuration is not bound to this network interface. To resolve this issue, go to the DirectAccess and VPN Configuration in the management console and click Edit in the Remote Access Server configuration and choose Network Adapters. You’ll see that the adapter connected to the internal or perimeter network is blank. From the drop-down menu, select the network interface and choose Next,Finish, and then apply the configuration once again.

Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess in Microsoft Azure

Changes to Public DNS

When the DirectAccess server is deallocated, the public IPv4 address assigned to it is released. If the VM is deallocated for an extended period of time, you will not get your originally assigned public IP address again and a new one is assigned upon restart. You’ll need to update your public DNS record to reflect this change of IP address. It is possible to reserve a public IP address using PowerShell. However, it does require that you reserve the public IP address prior to creating the virtual machine. In addition, you’ll need to create the virtual machine using PowerShell to leverage the reserved public address. As of this writing, reserving public IP addresses is not available through the Azure portal GUI. For more information about reserving public IP addresses in Azure, click here.

Summary

Although it is technically possible to configure DirectAccess on Windows Server 2012 R2 hosted in the Microsoft Azure public cloud, it is formally unsupported and there are a number of factors that make its use potentially problematic. It might be possible that future changes could make this better, but for now it does work in some scenarios if you accept the workarounds. Proceed at your own risk!

Networking and DirectAccess Sessions at TechEd 2012

This year I had the privilege of attending both TechEd North America and TechEd Europe, and presenting a session on Forefront TMG and UAG at both events. With the release of Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 due later this year, there were many sessions about the technologies included in the new client and server operating systems. When I wasn’t delivering my session or spending time with the Microsoft team in the learning center, I attended a number of sessions on security and networking. If you were unable to attend, or perhaps missed any of these sessions, they are now all available online on MSDN Channel 9. [ North America | Europe ] Here is a list of my favorite sessions:

  • IPv6 Bootcamp: Get Up to Speed Quickly
  • Windows Server 2012 DirectAccess: How to Quickly and Easily Deploy Your Next Generation Remote Access Solution
  • Overview of Hyper-V Networking in Windows Server 2012
  • Windows Server 2012 NIC Teaming and Multichannel Solutions
  • Networking for Hybrid Cloud: BranchCache and Cross Premise Connectivity
  • Hyper-V Network Virtualization for Scalable Multi-Tenancy in Windows
  • Extending Enterprise Networks to Windows Azure using Windows Azure Virtual Networks
  • Demystifying Microsoft Forefront Edge Security Technologies: TMG and UAG
  • Ok, I have to admit that I’m somewhat biased about that last session on the list. 😉 However, Windows Server 2012 does have a lot of new networking features and capabilities that make it a compelling solution for remote access and hybrid cloud connectivity. Have a look at some of these sessions and start evaluating Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 today!

    %d bloggers like this: