Top 5 DirectAccess Troubleshooting Tips

Top 5 DirectAccess Troubleshooting TipsDirectAccess is a thing of beauty when everything is working as it should. When it isn’t, troubleshooting can be quite challenging. DirectAccess relies on many Windows platform technologies such as Active Directory for authentication, PKI for certificate management, group policy for settings deployment, IPsec for encryption, and IPv6 for transport. With so many dependencies, locating the source of the problem can be a difficult and daunting task.

I’m frequently called upon to help organizations of all sizes with DirectAccess troubleshooting. While this post is not intended to be a detailed, prescriptive guide for DirectAccess troubleshooting, I did want to share some common troubleshooting tips based on many years of troubleshooting DirectAccess.

Here are my top 5 DirectAccess troubleshooting tips:

  1. Check Prerequisites – Before diving in and collecting network traces and scouring event logs for clues as to why DirectAccess isn’t working, it’s essential to start at the beginning. Often the source of trouble is missing or misconfigured prerequisites. For example, is the DirectAccess client running a supported operating system? Remember, clients must be running Windows 10 Enterprise or Education, Windows 8.x Enterprise, or Windows 7 Enterprise or Ultimate. Also, ensure that the Windows firewall is enabled on DirectAccess servers and clients, that certificates are installed and valid (trusted, correct EKU, etc.), and that the DirectAccess settings GPO has been applied to servers and clients.
  2. Validate External Connectivity – If you are following implementation and security best practices for DirectAccess, the DirectAccess server will be in a perimeter/DMZ network behind an edge firewall. The firewall must be configured to allow inbound TCP port 443 only. If the firewall is also performing Network Address Translation (NAT), the NAT rule must be configured to forward traffic to the DirectAccess server’s dedicated or virtual IP address (VIP), or the VIP of the load balancer. Watch for routing issues when using load balancers too. It’s a good idea to confirm external connectivity using the Test-NetConnection PowerShell command. Even better, use the open source tool Nmap for more thorough testing.
  3. Remove Third Party Software – I can’t tell you how many times I’ve resolved DirectAccess connectivity issues by removing (not just disabling!) third party software on the client and/or server. It’s not uncommon for third-party security software to interfere with IPsec and/or IPv6 communication, both of which are vital to DirectAccess. If your DirectAccess troubleshooting efforts reveal no underlying issues with prerequisites or external connectivity, I’d suggest removing (at least temporarily) any third-party software and testing again.
  4. Isolate Environmental Issues – Occasionally other settings applied manually or via Active Directory group policy will interfere with DirectAccess. Examples include IPv6 being disabled in the registry, IPv6 transition technologies required to support DirectAccess are turned off, essential firewall rules for DirectAccess are disabled, or manipulating local security settings such as Access this computer from the network. To assist with troubleshooting it might be necessary to temporarily place DirectAccess clients and servers in their own dedicated Organizational Units (OUs) and block inheritance to isolate the configuration as much as possible. In addition, if DirectAccess clients are servers are provisioned using images or templates, testing with a clean build straight from the installation source (ISO or DVD) can be helpful.
  5. Check for Unsupported Configurations – If DirectAccess isn’t working, it might be possible the configuration you are trying to use is not supported. Examples including strong user authentication with OTP when force tunneling is enabled, provisioning Windows 7 clients when using Kerberos Proxy authentication, or provisioning Windows 10 clients when Network Access Protection (NAP) integration is enabled. These configurations won’t work and are formally documented here.

This is by no means a comprehensive or exhaustive troubleshooting guide. For more information and additional DirectAccess troubleshooting guidance I would encourage you to purchase my book Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016, which has an entire chapter devoted just to troubleshooting. In addition, watch my DirectAccess video training courses on Pluralsight for details and information about DirectAccess installation, configuration, management, support, and troubleshooting. And if you’re still struggling to resolve a DirectAccess problem, use the form at the bottom of this page to contact me to inquire about additional troubleshooting help.

Additional Resources

Microsoft Windows DirectAccess Client Troubleshooting Tool
DirectAccess and Windows 10 Professional
DirectAccess Troubleshooting with Nmap
DirectAccess Unsupported Configurations
Planning and Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Video Training Course on Pluralsight
Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Book

Need assistance with DirectAccess troubleshooting? Complete the form below and I’ll get in touch with you.

DirectAccess IPv6 Support for WorkSite and iManage Work

DirectAccess IPv6 Support for WorkSite and iManage WorkiManage Work (formerly WorkSite) is a popular document management system commonly used in the legal, accounting, and financial services industries. Historically, there have been issues getting WorkSite to function over DirectAccess, because WorkSite used IPv4 addresses and DirectAccess clients use IPv6. When a DirectAccess client is outside of the office, it communicates with the DirectAccess server using IPv6 exclusively, so applications that make calls directly to IPv4 addresses won’t work.

One way DirectAccess administrators could make WorkSite function was to use portproxy to create v4tov6 address and port mappings on the client. However, this method is error prone, difficult to troubleshoot and support, and doesn’t scale effectively.

The good news is that beginning with release 9, the iManage Work client application has been upgraded to support IPv6. However, it is not enabled by default. To enable IPv6 support for iManage Work, add the following registry key on the client side (not the server!). No other changes are required.

HKLM\Software\Wow6432Node\Interwoven\WorkSite\Server Common\

Type: REG_SZ
String: IP Address Family
Value: IPv6

DirectAccess IPv6 Support for WorkSite and iManage Work

You can also use the following PowerShell command to add this registry entry.

New-Item -Path “HKLM:\Software\Wow6432Node\Interwoven\WorkSite\Server Common\” -Force
New-ItemProperty -Path “HKLM:\Software\Wow6432Node\Interwoven\WorkSite\Server Common\”-Name “IP Address Family” -PropertyType String -Value IPv6 -Force

After validation testing is complete, deploy the registry setting via Active Directory group policy preferences to all DirectAccess clients and iManage Work will function perfectly over DirectAccess!

Additional Resources

Active Directory Group Policy Preferences on Microsoft TechNet

iManage Web Site

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Introduction

When installing DirectAccess for the first time, an administrator may encounter the following error message while running the Remote Access Setup wizard.

Error. The client cannot connect to the destination specified in the request. Verify that the service on the destination is running and is accepting requests. Consult the logs and documentation for the WS-Management service running on the destination, most commonly IIS or WinRM. If the destination is the WinRM service, run the following command on the destination to analyze and configure the WinRM service: “winrm quickconfig”.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Troubleshooting

Running winrm quickconfig in an elevated PowerShell command window returns the following message.

WinRM service is already running on this machine.
WinRM is already set up for remote management on this computer.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Clicking Check prerequisites again does not resolve the error message.

Post-Installation Errors

If DirectAccess is already installed and working properly, an administrator may encounter a scenario in which the operations status page displays nothing, yet remote DirectAccess clients are connected and able to access corporate resources without issue.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

In addition, clicking Edit on Step 2 in the Remote Access Management console and choosing Network Adapters produces an error message stating “An error occurred when validating interfaces”. You can select a network adapter from the drop-down list, but the Next and Finish buttons are grayed out.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Conflicts with WinRM

These errors are commonly caused by a conflict with WinRM Service settings enforced via Active Directory group policy. To confirm this, open an elevated PowerShell command window run the winrm enumerate winrm/config/listener command. The listener configuration source will be listed as GPO.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

The administrator will also find the presence of the following registry keys on the DirectAccess server.

HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\AllowAutoConfig
HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\IPv4Filter
HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\IPv6Filter

Resolution

To resolve this conflict, prevent the GPO with this setting from being applied to the DirectAccess server(s). You will find this GPO setting in the Group Policy Management console (GPMC) by navigating to Computer Configuration -> Policies -> Administrative Templates -> Windows Components -> Windows Remote Management (WinRM) -> WinRM Service and setting the state of Allow remote server management through WinRM to Not configured.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Additional Resources

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Education

VIDEO – DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Action 

BOOK – Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

Windows Clients Do Not Receive DirectAccess Configuration Changes

Windows Clients Do Not Receive DirectAccess Configuration Changes

A scenario can occur in which changes to the DirectAccess configuration made using the Remote Access Management console or at the command line using PowerShell are not reflected on the DirectAccess client, even after receiving the latest group policy updates. The issue occurs for DirectAccess clients that are provisioned with the Offline Domain Join (ODJ, or djoin.exe) tool.

When the ODJ provisioning package is initially created, it does not add the new computer account to the DirectAccess security group. The ODJ-provisioned client receives all DirectAccess configuration settings at the time of provisioning, but it will not receive subsequent changes to the DirectAccess configuration made after it was originally provisioned.

To resolve this issue, be sure to proactively add the DirectAccess client’s computer account to the appropriate DirectAccess security group in Active Directory after provisioning with ODJ using Active Directory Users and Computers (ADUC), the Active Directory Administrative Center (ADAC), or by executing the following PowerShell command:

Add-ADGroupMember -Identity [DirectAccess Client Security Group] -Members [computername]

Once the DirectAccess client has been added to the security group and restarted, it will then receive DirectAccess configuration settings changes going forward.

Configuring Multiple Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess Instances

DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 R2 supports many different deployment configurations. It can be deployed with a single server, multiple servers in a single location, multiple servers in multiple locations, edge facing, in a perimeter or DMZ network, etc.

Global Settings

There are a number of important DirectAccess settings that are global in scope and apply to all DirectAccess clients, such as certificate authentication, force tunneling, one-time password, and many more. For example, if you configure DirectAccess to use Kerberos Proxy instead of certificates for authentication, Windows 7 clients are not supported. In this scenario it is advantageous to have a second parallel DirectAccess deployment configured specifically for Windows 7 clients. This allows Windows 8 clients to take advantage of the performance gains afforded by Kerberos Proxy, while at the same time providing an avenue of support for Windows 7 clients.

Parallel Deployments

To the surprise of many, it is indeed possible to deploy DirectAccess more than once in an organization. I’ve been helping customers deploy DirectAccess for nearly five years now, and I’ve done this on more than a few occasions. In fact, there are some additional important uses cases that having more than one DirectAccess deployment can address.

Common Use Cases

QA and Testing – Having a separate DirectAccess deployment to perform testing and quality assurance can be quite helpful. Here you can validate configuration changes and verify updates without potential negative impact on the production deployment.

Delegated Administration – DirectAccess provides support for geographic redundancy, allowing administrators to create DirectAccess entry points in many different locations. DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 R2 lacks support for delegated administration though, and in some cases it may make more sense to have multiple separate deployments as opposed to a single, multisite deployment. For example, many organizations are divided in to different business units internally and may operate autonomously. They may also have different configuration requirements, which can be better addressed using individual DirectAccess implementations.

Migration – If you have currently deployed DirectAccess using Windows Server 2008 R2 with or without Forefront UAG 2010, migrating to Windows Server 2012 R2 can be challenging because a direct, in-place upgrade is not supported. You can, however, deploy DirectAccess using Windows Server 2012 R2 in parallel to your existing deployment and simply migrate users to the new solution by moving the DirectAccess client computer accounts to a new security group assigned to the new deployment.

Major Configuration Changes – This strategy is also useful for scenarios where implementing changes to the DirectAccess configuration would be disruptive for remote users. For example, changing from a single site to a multisite configuration would typically require that all DirectAccess clients be on the LAN or connect remotely out-of-band to receive group policy settings changes after multisite is first configured. In addition, parallel deployments can significantly ease the pain of transitioning to a new root CA if required.

Unique Client Requirements – Having a separate deployment may be required to take advantage of the unique capabilities of each client operating system. For example, Windows 10 clients do not support Microsoft Network Access Protection (NAP) integration. NAP is a global setting in DirectAccess and applies to all clients. If you still require NAP integration and endpoint validation using NAP for Windows 7 and Windows 8.x, another DirectAccess deployment will be required to support Windows 10 clients.

Requirements

To support multiple Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess deployments in the same organization, the following is required:

Unique IP Addresses – It probably goes without saying, but each DirectAccess deployment must have unique internal and external IPv4 addresses.

Distinct Public Hostname – The public hostname used for each deployment must also be unique. Multi-SAN certificates have limited support for DirectAccess IP-HTTPS (public hostname must be the first entry in the list), so consider using a wildcard certificate or obtain certificates individually for each deployment.

Group Policy Objects – You must use unique Active Directory Group Policy Objects (GPOs) to support multiple DirectAccess deployments in a single organization. You have the option to specify a unique GPO when you configure DirectAccess for the first time by clicking the Change link next to GPO Settings on the Remote Access Review screen.

Configuring Multiple Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess Instances

Enter a distinct name for both the client and server GPOs. Click Ok and then click Apply to apply the DirectAccess settings for this deployment.

Configuring Multiple Windows Server 2012 R2 DirectAccess Instances

Windows 7 DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA) GPOs – If the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA) v2.0 has been deployed for Windows 7 clients, separate GPOs containing the DCA client settings for each individual deployment will have to be configured. Each DirectAccess deployment will have unique Dynamic Tunnel Endpoint (DTE) IPv6 addresses which are used by the DCA to confirm corporate network connectivity. The rest of the DCA settings can be the same, if desired.

Supporting Infrastructure

The rest of the supporting infrastructure (AD DS, PKI, NLS, etc.) can be shared between the individual DirectAccess deployments without issue. Once you’ve deployed multiple DirectAccess deployments, make sure that DirectAccess clients DO NOT belong to more than one DirectAccess client security group to prevent connectivity issues.

Migration Process

Moving DirectAccess client computers from the old security group to the new one is all that’s required to migrate clients from one DirectAccess deployment to another. Client machines will need to be restarted to pick up the new security group membership, at which time they will also get the DirectAccess client settings for the new deployment. This works seamlessly when clients are on the internal network. It works well for clients that are outside the network too, for the most part. Because clients must be restarted to get the new settings, it can take some time before all clients finally moved over. To speed up this process it is recommended that DirectAccess client settings GPOs be targeted at a specific OUs created for the migration process. A staging OU is created for clients in the old deployment and a production OU is created for clients to be assigned to the new deployment. DirectAccess client settings GPOs are then targeted at those OUs accordingly. Migrating then only requires moving a DirectAccess client from the old OU to the new one. Since OU assignment does not require a reboot, clients can be migrated much more quickly using this method.

Summary

DirectAccess with Windows Server 2012 R2 supports many different deployment models. For a given DirectAccess deployment model, some settings are global in scope and may not provide the flexibility required by some organizations. To address these challenges, consider a parallel deployment of DirectAccess. This will enable you to take advantage of the unique capabilities of each client operating system, or allow you to meet the often disparate configuration requirements that a single deployment cannot support.

DirectAccess Client and Server Settings GPOs Deleted

Microsoft Windows Server Active DirectoryFor DirectAccess deployments where domain controllers are running Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2003 R2 using the File Replication Service (FRS) for replication, DirectAccess client and server settings Group Policy Objects (GPOs) may be deleted. If these GPOs are deleted, DirectAccess connectivity will be disrupted. If the GPOs cannot be recovered via backup, it will be necessary to rebuild the entire DirectAccess deployment from scratch.

Microsoft recently updated their DirectAccess Unsupported Configurations documentation to reflect new guidance for DirectAccess deployments where the FRS is used for the distribution of Active Directory GPOs. DirectAccess is no longer supported in environments where FRS is used for SYSVOL replication.

What this means is that if you plan to deploy DirectAccess, domain controllers must be running Windows Server 2008 or later, and Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R) must be used for replication.

More details can be found here.

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

Introduction

For a DirectAccess deployment, the Network Location Server (NLS) is an infrastructure component that allows DirectAccess clients to determine if they are inside or outside of the corporate network. If the DirectAccess client can successfully connect to the NLS, it is on the internal network and DirectAccess is not used. If the NLS cannot be contacted, the client is outside of the network and will attempt to establish remote corporate network connectivity using DirectAccess.

High Availability

It is recommended that the NLS be made highly available by deploying at least two servers in a load balanced configuration to avoid potential service disruptions for DirectAccess clients inside the corporate network. While this approach is sufficient for networks that are contained in a single physical location, it does present some challenges for large organizations with internal networks that span multiple physical locations.

NLS Challenges

For DirectAccess, only a single NLS URL can be configured per DirectAccess deployment, as shown here.

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

If a WAN outage occurs on an internal network that spans multiple physical locations, internal DirectAccess clients in locations other than where the NLS resides will mistakenly believe they are outside of the corporate network. This can lead to degraded performance and potential loss of connectivity. NLS reliability can still be improved when the internal network spans multiple physical locations by deploying NLS at each physical location and configuring clients to use a local NLS. This will keep traffic off of the WAN and prevent service disruptions in the event of a WAN outage.

Redundant NLS

There are several strategies that can be used to configure internal DirectAccess clients to use a local NLS, including DNS round robin, a network load balancer, or Active Directory Group Policy. Using DNS or a load balancer requires only a single NLS URL. Using Active Directory Group Policy requires a unique NLS URL per physical location.

DNS

The simplest way to enable DirectAccess clients to use a local NLS is to use DNS round robin and take advantage of subnet prioritization. To do this, create an “A” resource record in DNS that resolves to the IPv4 address for each NLS. On the DNS server, open the DNS Manager, right-click the DNS server and choose Properties. Click the Advanced tab and select the options to Enable round robin and Enable netmask ordering.

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

This will ensure that name resolution requests for the NLS FQDN will be returned with the nearest NLS. More information about DNS netmask ordering can be found here.

Load Balancer

A Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) solution can also be employed to route requests to a local NLS. Examples include F5 Global Traffic Manager (GTM) and Kemp Technologies LoadMaster GEO. Prescriptive guidance for configuring the Kemp LoadMaster for this scenario can be found here.

Group Policy

This method involves creating unique NLS URLs per site and overriding the default DirectAccess client configuration using Active Directory Group Policy. Separate Group Policy Objects (GPOs) are created and linked to Active Directory Sites to assign a local NLS to internal DirectAccess clients. To accomplish this, create a new GPO for each location where NLS will reside. Edit the GPO and navigate to Computer Configuration/Policies/Administrative Templates/Network/Network Connectivity Status Indicator. Double-click Specify domain location determination URL, choose Enabled, and then enter the URL that corresponds to the NLS for that location.

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

In the Remote Access Management Console, edit the Infrastructure Server Setup (Step 3) and add the FQDN for each NLS. Do not specify a DNS server. This effectively creates a Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) exemption so the NLS cannot be reached when the DirectAccess client is connected remotely.

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

In the Group Policy Management Console right-click on Sites and choose Show Sites.

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

Select each Active Directory site where NLS will reside.

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

Link the GPOs for each NLS to the corresponding site, then right-click the linked GPO and choose Enforced.

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

Note: Do not install the NLS on a domain controller! By design, the NLS is not reachable remotely by DirectAccess clients. This can lead to potential authentication issues and may prevent DirectAccess clients from connecting successfully.

Client Testing

To confirm that a client computer has been configured to use a local NLS, verify the currently associated Active Directory site by issuing the following command on the DirectAccess client computer:

nltest /dsgetsite

Next, confirm the setting of the NLS by issuing the following command:

Get-NCSIPolicyConfiguration

As a reference, here are examples from two DirectAccess clients in two different internal physical locations:

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

DirectAccess NLS Deployment Considerations for Large Enterprises

Summary

The limitation of a single Network Location Server (NLS) URL for a DirectAccess deployment presents some challenges for DirectAccess architects seeking to eliminate single points of failure in their design. Using the techniques described in this article, administrators can ensure that DirectAccess clients will always connect to a local NLS, eliminating potential failure points and improving the overall reliability of the solution.

Additional Resources

DirectAccess Network Location Server (NLS) Guidance

Configure KEMP LoadMaster Load Balancer for DirectAccess Network Location Server (NLS)

Configure Citrix NetScaler for DirectAccess Network Location Server (NLS)

Configure F5 BIG-IP for DirectAccess Network Location Server (NLS) 

DirectAccess Computer Certificate Auto-enrollment

DirectAccess requires computer certificates to be installed on the DirectAccess server and DirectAccess clients. These certificates are used for IPsec, which provides a secure, encrypted communication channel between the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server. IPsec ensures the necessary integrity, confidentiality, and non-repudiation required for secure remote access. When using a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to issue computer certificates to DirectAccess clients, it can be helpful to automate this process by configuring certificate auto-enrollment using Active Directory group policy.

To begin, open the Group Policy Management Console and expand Domains. Next, expand your domain, right-click Group Policy Objects and choose New. Enter a descriptive name for the new GPO and click Ok. Right-click the GPO you just created and choose Edit. Expand Computer Configuration, Windows Settings, Security Settings, and Public Key Policies. Highlight Public Key Policies, and then double-click Certificate Services Client – Auto-Enrollment. For the Configuration Model choose Enabled. It is recommended that you also choose to Renew expired certificates, update pending certificates, and remove revoked certificates and Update certificates that use certificate templates.

DirectAccess Certificate Auto-enrollment

Close out of the Group Policy Editor and then link this computer certificate auto-enrollment GPO to your domain. Target only DirectAccess client and server security groups with this GPO instead of all domain computers by configuring Security Filtering to apply this GPO only to DirectAccess client and server machines.

DirectAccess Certificate Auto-enrollment

Finally, on your certificate server, right-click the DirectAccess certificate template, choose Properties, and then choose Security. Make certain the Enroll and Autoenroll permissions are set to Allow for all DirectAccess client and server security groups.

DirectAccess Certificate Auto-enrollment

 

Installing and Configuring DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant 2.0 on Windows 7 Clients

When DirectAccess first appeared as a feature in Windows Server 2008 R2, one of the challenges was determining quickly and easily if a DirectAccess client had successfully established remote network connectivity, and more importantly if that connection was unsuccessful or had dropped for any reason. To address this issue, Microsoft released the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA) version 1.0, first introduced in February of 2010 as part of the Windows Optimized Desktop Toolkit. It has been updated a number of times since its initial release, and in Windows 8 the DCA functionality is now part of the base operating system. The DCA is helpful from a diagnostic and troubleshooting perspective, as it provides an intuitive visual indicator for DirectAccess connectivity status. More importantly, the DCA is required to support One-Time Passwords (OTP).

As of this writing, the latest version of the DCA is version 2.0, which can be downloaded here. DCA 1.0 and 1.5 are both supported with Windows Server 2012 DirectAccess, unless you need to provide support for OTP, which of course will require DCA 2.0. It is possible to perform an in-place upgrade from DCA 1.5, but if you’ve deployed DCA 1.0 you’ll have to uninstall prior to installing DCA 2.0. It’s important to understand that DCA 2.0 is explicitly NOT supported with Windows Server 2008 R2 DirectAccess or Server 2008R2/Forefront UAG DirectAccess. In addition, the DCA 2.0 MSI installation package can be deployed automatically using Active Directory Group Policy, System Center Configuration Manager, or any other third-party software distribution tool.

To install and configure DCA 2.0 on your Windows 7 DirectAccess clients, download DCA 2.0 and extract all of the files, then run the either the 32 bit or 64 bit version of the MSI on the client, depending on your operating system. The settings for the DCA are managed exclusively with group policy, so once you’ve installed DCA 2.0 on the client, log on to a domain controller and copy the file DirectAccess_Connectivity_Assistant_2_0_GP.admx to the C:\Windows\PolicyDefinitions folder. In addition, copy the file DirectAccess_Connectivity_Assistant_2_0_GP.adml to the C:\Windows\PolicyDefinitions\en-US folder. Next open the Group Policy Management Console and create a new Group Policy Object (GPO) for your Windows 7 DCA settings. Right-click the GPO and choose Edit.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_001

In the Group Policy Management Editor expand Computer Configuration, Policies, and Administrative Templates and then highlight DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant. Double-click Support Email, select the option to enable the setting and enter an e-mail address. This setting is optional, but is required if you want to allow your remote DirectAccess users to e-mail client logs to a helpdesk administrator.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_02

Click Next Setting to configure the DirectAccess Dynamic Tunnel Endpoints (DTEs). Select the option to enable the setting, then click the Show button. To ensure that you are using the correct DTEs, I suggest collecting this information from the registry of the DirectAccess server by opening an elevated PowerShell prompt on the DirectAccess server and issuing the following command…

Get-Item –Path HKLM:\\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\RaMgmtSvc\Config\Parameters

…and note the entries for DTE1 and DTE2. Copy these addresses to the GPO setting using the syntax PING:<DTE_IPv6_Address>.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_03

directaccess_dca2_windows7_04

Click Next Setting to configure LocalNamesOn. This setting is optional, and when enabled will allow the DirectAccess client to use local name resolution, which effectively disables DirectAccess connectivity on the client side.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_05

Click Next Setting to configure Corporate Resources. Select the option to enable the setting and click Show. This setting enables a health check from the DirectAccess client to this resource to determine if the DirectAccess tunnels are up and that corporate network access connectivity is indeed working correctly. You can use ping, UNC file path, or an HTTP URL. I prefer to use the HTTP method as it seems to be the most reliable. Any internal web server will work, but keep in mind that if it is unavailable for any reason the DCA will indicate that network connectivity is not available when in fact it is working correctly. For that reason I’d suggest selecting a highly available (load balanced) internal web server if possible. DO NOT use the network location server (NLS) for this connectivity check. The syntax for this setting is HTTP:<internal_webserver_URL>. It is also recommended that you use the server’s FQDN when configuring this setting. You can also specify an IPv6 address, but an IPv4 address will not work.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_06

Click Next Setting to configure the Admin Script Location. This setting is optional and used only if you want to run a custom script on the Windows 7 DirectAccess client to gather additional information used for troubleshooting.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_07

Once complete, right-click WMI Filters in the Group Policy Management Console and choose New.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_002

Provide a descriptive name for the new WMI filter and click Add. Enter the following WMI query and click Ok.

select * from Win32_OperatingSystem where Version like "6.1%"

directaccess_dca2_windows7_003

Finally, edit the Security Filtering for this GPO by removing Authenticated Users and adding the DirectAccess client security group. In addition, link the GPO to the WMI filter for Windows 7 clients. Once complete, link the GPO to the domain.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_004

After you’ve completed the DCA group policy settings, refresh group policy configuration on the client by issuing a gpupdate /force command from an elevated command prompt. The DCA should now indicate that corporate network connectivity is working correctly.

directaccess_dca2_windows7_08

ISATAP Recommendations for DirectAccess Deployments

From a client perspective, DirectAccess is an IPv6 only solution. The client communicates with the DirectAccess server and intranet resources using IPv6 exclusively. To enable communication between DirectAccess clients and IPv4 only resources on the Intranet, Windows Server 2012 DirectAccess (as well as Forefront UAG/DirectAccess) includes two important protocol translatorsDNS64 and NAT64. Unfortunately DNS64 and NAT64 provide only inbound protocol translation, so another measure is required for communication initiated outbound to connected DirectAccess clients. To support outbound communication originating from the Intranet to connect DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server is configured as an Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) router. ISATAP is an IPv6 transition protocol that allows hosts on the intranet to initiate outbound communication to DirectAccess clients on the Internet by tunneling IPv6 communication over the internal IPv4 network. ISTAP is enabled by populating internal DNS with a host record called ISATAP that resolves to the IPv4 address assigned to the Internal network adapter on the ISATAP router, in this case the DirectAccess server (don’t forget to remove ISATAP from the DNS global query block list!). When a client resolves ISATAP to an IP address successfully, it enables an ISATAP tunnel adapter and assigns itself an ISATAP IPv6 address. Once enabled, any host with an ISATAP tunnel adapter configured can initiate outbound communication to DirectAccess clients on the Internet.

When configured and enabled, ISATAP opens up new and interesting network communication scenarios. For example, a helpdesk engineer can proactively initiate a remote desktop session to a remote client connected via DirectAccess to troubleshoot an application. Systems management engineers can push software out to DirectAccess clients without requiring an agent on the remote client to “phone home” to receive software updates. This model is often referred to as “manage out”.

In the early days of DirectAccess with Windows Server 2008 R2 and Forefront UAG, configuring and enabling ISTAP as described above was standard operating procedure. However, we soon learned that there are some serious drawbacks to deploying ISATAP. While the DirectAccess manage out scenario is an important and frequently requested feature of a DirectAccess implementation, it often causes more trouble than it solves. In its default configuration, ISATAP is a global change that affects all hosts that can resolve the hostname ISATAP to an IP address. The challenge here is that this change can break or impair normal network communication for some hosts on the Intranet. For example, if an Intranet host is able to resolve a public hostname to an IPv6 address, it may attempt to connect to the site via ISATAP. Unfortunately, in this scenario ISATAP does not lead to the public Internet. Rather, ISATAP is used to provide network connectivity exclusively for our DirectAccess clients. Since IPv6 is preferred in most modern operating system’s networking stacks, it can lead to failed or seriously delayed communication to Internet resources. In addition, once ISATAP is enabled globally there will be a lot of IPv6 communication taking place on the network, which in large enterprise networks can be a source of confusion for those individuals with the responsibility for monitoring the network.

ISATAP also suffers from a lack of robust monitoring tools for this very essential service. Additionally, ISTAP turns the OSI model upside down. ISATAP relies on upper-layer protocols (DNS) to provide its service. If there are issues with DNS that prevent proper name resolution, ISTAP routing will cease to function, which is fundamentally backward.

As I mentioned earlier, by default, ISATAP is a global setting. However, in most environments there will only be a few systems that will require the ability to initiate outbound communication from the Intranet to DirectAccess clients. Typically these will be helpdesk administrators’ workstations or management systems. Today we are recommending that you deploy IPv6 on any internal systems that will participate in any DirectAccess manage out scenarios. Unfortunately this will not be possible in many cases, as additional network changes are often required to support IPv6 on the Intranet. In these cases we recommend that instead of configuring ISATAP in DNS globally, you target individual systems for ISATAP configuration as required. This can be accomplished in a number of ways.

Group Policy – This is best way to deploy ISATAP settings to systems that require DirectAccess manage out functionality. It is the easiest to manage and the most scalable as well. It involves creating a unique ISATAP hostname and assigning it to individual systems via group policy. Thankfully my buddy Jason Jones has already documented that process here, saving me the time and effort of doing it myself. Why reinvent the wheel, right? : )

PowerShell – Using PowerShell is an alternative method of configuring an individual system to use ISATAP. Although not as scalable as the group policy method, it is still very effective. On the system that requires network connectivity to DirectAccess clients, from an elevated PowerShell prompt execute the following command:

Set-NetISATAPConfiguration -Router <NameOrIPAddress>

Netsh – Another command line method for configuring the ISATAP is to use netsh.exe. From an elevated command prompt execute the following command:

netsh interface isatap set router <NameOrIPAddress>

HOSTS file – This is the least desirable way to configure ISATAP, but I’ll mention it here because it is quick and simple and does work. On any system that requires ISATAP for DirectAccess manage out, simply edit the HOSTS file in C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\Etc and add a host record for ISTAP that resolves to the IPv4 address assigned to the internal network interface of the DirectAccess server. Obviously this is the least scalable alternative and should only be used in test environments or very small production networks.

As you can see there are numerous drawbacks to configuring ISATAP on a global scale. Fortunately there are simple and effective workarounds that allow you to target specific systems for ISTAP configuration. Choose the one that works best for you and have fun managing your DirectAccess clients!

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