Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Always On VPN with Azure GatewayRecently I wrote about VPN server deployment options for Windows 10 Always On VPN in Azure. In that post I indicated the native Azure VPN gateway could be used to support Always On VPN connections using Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) and Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP). In this post I’ll outline the requirements and configuration steps for implementing this solution.

Requirements

To support Always On VPN, point-to-site VPN connections must be enabled on the Azure VPN gateway. Not all Azure VPN gateways are alike, and point-to-site connections are not supported in all scenarios. For Always On VPN, the Azure VPN gateway must meet the following requirements.

VPN SKU

The Azure VPN gateway SKU must be VpnGw1, VpnGw2, VpnGw3, VpnGw1AZ, VpnGw2AZ, or VpnGw3AZ. The Basic SKU is not supported.

VPN Type

The VPN type must be route-based. Policy-based VPN gateways are not supported for point-to-site VPN connections.

Limitations

Using the Azure VPN gateway for Always On VPN may not be ideal in all scenarios. The following limitations should be considered thoroughly before choosing the Azure VPN gateway for Always On VPN.

Device Tunnel

RADIUS/EAP authentication for user tunnel connections is not supported if the Azure VPN gateway is configured to support device tunnel with machine certificate authentication.

Maximum Connections

A maximum of 250, 500, and 1000 concurrent IKEv2 connections are supported when using the VpnGw1/AZ, VpnGw2/AZ, and VpnGw3/AZ SKUs, respectively (x2 for active/active gateway deployments). In addition, a maximum of 128 concurrent SSTP connections are supported for all VPN gateway SKUs (x2 for active/active gateway deployments).

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/vpn-gateway/vpn-gateway-about-vpngateways#gwsku

RADIUS Requirements

To support Always On VPN connections, the Azure VPN gateway must be configured to authenticate to a RADIUS server. The RADIUS server must be reachable from the VPN gateway subnet. The RADIUS server can be hosted in Azure or on-premises. Before proceeding, ensure that any network routes, firewall rules, and site-to-site VPN tunnel configuration is in place to allow this communication.

RADIUS Configuration

Guidance for configuring Windows Server NPS for Always On VPN can be found here. The only difference when configuring NPS for use with Azure VPN gateway is the RADIUS client configuration.

Open the NPS management console (nps.msc) and follow the steps below to configure Windows Server NPS to support Always On VPN client connections from the Azure VPN gateway.

1. Expand RADIUS Clients and Servers.
2. Right-click RADIUS Clients and choose New.
3. Enter a descriptive name in the Friendly name field.
4. Enter the Azure VPN gateway subnet using CIDR notation in the Address (IP or DNS) field. The gateway subnet can be found by viewing the properties of the Azure VPN gateway in the Azure portal.
5. Enter the shared secret to be used for RADIUS communication in the Shared secret field.

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Azure VPN Gateway Configuration

To begin, provision a Virtual Network Gateway in Azure that meets the requirements outlined above. Guidance for implementing an Azure VPN gateway can be found here. Once complete, follow the steps below to enable support for Always On VPN client connections.

Enable Point-to-Site

Perform the following steps to enable point-to-site VPN connectivity.

1. In the navigation pane of the Azure VPN gateway settings click Point-to-site configuration.
2. Click Configure Now and specify an IPv4 address pool to be assigned to VPN clients. This IP address pool must be unique in the organization and must not overlap with any IP address ranges defined in the Azure virtual network.
3. From the Tunnel type drop-down list select IKEv2 and SSTP (SSL).
4. In the RADIUS authentication field enter the IPv4 address of the RADIUS server. At the time of this writing only a single IPv4 address is supported. If RADIUS redundancy is required, consider creating a load balanced NPS cluster.
5. In the Server secret field enter the RADIUS shared secret.
6. Click Save to save the configuration.

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

VPN Client Configuration

Perform the following steps to configure a Windows 10 VPN client to connect to the Azure VPN gateway.

Download VPN Configuration

1. Click Point-to-site configuration.
2. Click Download VPN client.
3. Select EAPMSCHAv2 (yes, that’s correct even if EAP-TLS will be used!)
4. Click Download.
5. Open the downloaded zip file and extract the VpnSettings.XML file from the Generic folder.
6. Copy the FQDN in the VpnServer element in VpnSettings.XML. This is the FQDN that will be used in the template VPN connection and later in ProfileXML.

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Create a Test VPN Connection

On a Windows 10 device create a test VPN profile using the VPN server address copied previously. Configure EAP settings to match those configured on the NPS server and test connectivity.

Create an Always On VPN Connection

Once the VPN has been validated using the test profile created previously, the VPN server and EAP configuration from the test profile can be used to create the Always On VPN profile for publishing using Intune, SCCM, or PowerShell.

IKEv2 Security Configuration

The default IKEv2 security parameters used by the Azure VPN gateway are better than Windows Server, but the administrator will notice that a weak DH key (1024 bit) is used in phase 1 negotiation.

Always On VPN with Azure Gateway

Use the following PowerShell commands to update the default IKEv2 security parameters to recommended baseline defaults, including 2048-bit keys (DH group 14) and AES-128 for improved performance.

Connect-AzAccount
Select-AzSubscription -SubscriptionName [Azure Subscription Name]

$Gateway = [Gateway Name]
$ResourceGroup = [Resource Group Name]

$IPsecPolicy = New-AzVpnClientIpsecParameter -IpsecEncryption AES128 -IpsecIntegrity SHA256 -SALifeTime 28800 -SADataSize 102400000 -IkeEncryption AES128 -IkeIntegrity SHA256 -DhGroup DHGroup14 -PfsGroup PFS14

Set-AzVpnClientIpsecParameter -VirtualNetworkGatewayName $Gateway -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroup -VpnClientIPsecParameter $IPsecPolicy

Note: Be sure to update the cryptography settings on the test VPN connection and in ProfileXML for Always On VPN connections to match the new VPN gateway settings. Failing to do so will result in an IPsec policy mismatch error.

Additional Information

Microsoft Azure VPN Gateway Overview

About Microsoft Azure Point-to-Site VPN

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Security Configuration

 

 

 

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Intune

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using IntuneA while back I described in detail how to configure a Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel connection using PowerShell. While using PowerShell is fine for local testing, it obviously doesn’t scale well. In theory you could deploy the PowerShell script and XML file using System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM), but using Microsoft Intune is the recommended and preferred deployment method. However, as of this writing Intune does not support device tunnel configuration natively. The administrator must create a ProfileXML manually and use Intune to deploy it.

Device Tunnel Prerequisites

I outlined the Always On VPN device tunnel prerequisites in my previous post here. To summarize, the client must be running Windows 10 Enterprise edition and be domain-joined. It must also have a certificate issued by the internal PKI with the Client Authentication EKU in the local computer certificate store.

ProfileXML

To begin, create a ProfileXML for the device tunnel that includes the required configuration settings and parameters for your deployment. You can find a sample Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel ProfileXML here.

Note: Be sure to define a custom IPsec policy in ProfileXML for the device tunnel. The default security settings for the IKEv2 protocol (required for the device tunnel) are quite poor. Details here.

Intune Deployment

Open the Intune management console and follow the steps below to deploy an Always On VPN device tunnel using Microsoft Intune.

Create Profile

1. Navigate to the Intune portal.
2. Click Device configuration.
3. Click Profiles.
4. Click Create profile.

Define Profile Settings

1. Enter a name for the VPN connection in the Name field.
2. Enter a description for the VPN connection in the Description field (optional).
3. Select Windows 10 and later from the Platform drop-down list.
4. Select Custom from the Profile type drop-down list.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Intune

Define Custom OMA-URI Settings

1. On the Custom OMA-URI Settings blade click Add.
2. Enter a name for the device tunnel in the Name field.
3. Enter a description for the VPN connection in the Description field (optional).
4. Enter the URI for the device tunnel in the OMA-URI field using the following syntax. If the profile name includes spaces they must be escaped, as shown here.

./Device/Vendor/MSFT/VPNv2/Example%20Profile%Name/ProfileXML

5. Select String (XML file) from the Data Type drop-down list.
6. Click the folder next to the Select a file field and chose the ProfileXML file created previously.
7. Click Ok twice and then click Create.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Intune

Assign Profile

Follow the steps below to assign the Always On VPN device tunnel profile to the appropriate device group.

1. Click Assignments.
2. Click Select groups to include.
3. Select the group that includes the Windows 10 client devices.
4. Click Select.
5. Click Save.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Intune

Demonstration Video

A video demonstration of the steps outlined above can be viewed here.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using PowerShell

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Security Configuration

Deleting a Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Missing in the UI

Video: Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN User Tunnel with Microsoft Intune

Always On VPN ProfileXML Editing and Formatting with Visual Studio Code

Always On VPN ProfileXML Editing and Formatting with Visual Studio CodeWindows 10 Always On VPN is designed to be implemented and managed using a Mobile Device Management (MDM) platform such as Microsoft Intune. With Intune specifically, there is an option to configure an Always On VPN profile in the UI. However, it provides only limited support and does not include all settings and options required for many deployments. Crucially, IKEv2 advanced security settings cannot be configured using the Intune portal. Also, there is currently no option for configuring a device tunnel with Intune. In these scenarios the administrator must manually create a ProfileXML file and provision it using Intune, System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM), or PowerShell.

ProfileXML

ProfileXML includes all settings that define the Always On VPN connection. The options and settings available are documented in the VPNv2 Configuration Service Provider (CSP) reference on Microsoft’s web site. ProfileXML is formatted using elements and settings within those elements. The formatting and syntax are critical to ensuring proper operation. Any error in syntax or formatting can result in an error, such as those described here.

XML Readability

Formatting is also important for readability, which is often helpful when reviewing configuration settings or troubleshooting syntax errors. For example, an element may be defined correctly but may be nested wrong. Often XML files are created with all text being left-justified, or with everything on a single line, making the content difficult to read. Using a file editor that recognizes XML files can be beneficial.

Visual Studio Code

To create, edit, and review ProfileXML it is recommended that a proper editing tool be used. I recommend using Microsoft’s Visual Studio Code. It is free, and it is especially helpful when editing XML files. Visual Studio Code can be downloaded here.

XML Tools VS Code Plug-In

To further enhance Visual Studio Code’s XML editing and formatting capabilities I recommend installing the XML Tools plug-in. This tool extends the native features of VS code for handling XML files. One important thing it adds is a formatting feature that will make your ProfileXML much easier to manage. The XML Tools plug-in for VS Code can be downloaded here.

XML Formatting

Once the XML Tools plug-in for VS code has been installed, formatting XML for readability is straightforward. Simply right-click anywhere in the document and choose Format Document.

Always On VPN ProfileXML Editing and Formatting with Visual Studio CodeOnce complete, the XML document will be formatted with proper indenting and nesting of elements, as shown here.

Always On VPN ProfileXML Editing and Formatting with Visual Studio CodeSummary

Formatting and syntax must be strictly adhered to when creating a ProfileXML file for Windows 10 Always On VPN. Using Visual Studio Code with the XML Tools plug-in allow the administrator to create and edit XML with proper formatting, which greatly improves readability and allows for streamlined configuration review and troubleshooting.

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to Colin, an avid reader of the articles on this web site for this tip. Thanks, Colin! 🙂

Additional Information

Always On VPN and DirectAccess Scripts and Sample Files on GitHub

Always On VPN IKEv2 Security Configuration

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Always On VPN Hands-On Training Classes in 2019

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel ConfigurationIn its default configuration, NetMotion Mobility connections are established at the user level. In most cases this level of access is sufficient, but there are some common uses cases that require VPN connectivity before the user logs on. Examples include provisioning a new device to a user who has never logged on before, or to allow support engineers to connect to a remote device without requiring a user to log in first.

Infrastructure Requirements

To support NetMotion Mobility’s “unattended mode” (device tunnel) it will be necessary to deploy a Windows Server 2016 (or 2012R2) Network Policy Server (NPS). In addition, an internal private certification authority (CA) will be required to issue certificates to the NPS server and all NetMotion Mobility client computers.

Client Certificate Requirements

A certificate with the Client Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) must be provisioned to the local computer certificate store on all NetMotion Mobility clients that require a device tunnel (figure 1). The subject name on the certificate must match the fully qualified domain name of the client computer (figure 2). It is recommended that certificate auto enrollment be used to streamline the provisioning process.

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Figure 1. Computer certificate with Client Authentication EKU.

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Figure 2. Computer certificate with subject name matching the client computer’s hostname.

NPS Server Certificate Requirements

A certificate with the Server Authentication EKU must be provisioned to the local computer certificate store on the NPS server (figure 3). The subject name on the certificate must match the fully qualified domain name of the NPS server (figure 4).

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Figure 3. Computer certificate with Server Authentication EKU.

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Figure 4. Computer certificate with subject name matching the NPS server’s hostname.

NPS Server Configuration

Next install the NPS server role by running the following PowerShell command.

Install-WindowsFeature NPAS -IncludeMamagementTools

Once complete, open the NPS server management console and perform the following steps.

Note: Below is a highly simplified NPS configuration designed for a single use case. It is provided for demonstration purposes only. The NPS server may be used by more than one network access server (NAS) so the example policies included below may not work in every deployment.

  1. Expand RADIUS Clients and Servers.
  2. Right-click RADIUS clients and choose New.
  3. Select the option to Enable this RADIUS client.
  4. Enter a friendly name.
  5. Enter the IP address or hostname of the NetMotion gateway server.
  6. Click Verify to validate the hostname or IP address.
  7. Select Manual to enter a shared secret, or select Generate to create one automatically.
  8. Copy the shared secret as it will be required when configure the NetMotion Mobility gateway server later.
  9. Click OK.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  10. Expand Policies.
  11. Right-click Network Policies and choose New.
  12. Enter a descriptive name for the new policy.
  13. Select Type of network access server and choose Unspecified.
  14. Click Next.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  15. Click Add.
  16. Select Client IPv4 Address.
  17. Click Add.
  18. Enter the internal IPv4 address of the NetMotion Mobility gateway server.
  19. Click OK.
  20. Click Next.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  21. Select Access granted.
  22. Click Next.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  23. Click Add.
  24. Choose Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP).
  25. Click OK.
  26. Select Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP).
  27. Click Edit.
  28. Choose the appropriate certificate in the Certificate issued to drop down list.
  29. Select Secure password (EAP-MSCHAP v2).
  30. Click Remove.
  31. Click Add.
  32. Choose Smart Card or other certificate.
  33. Click OK.
  34. Select Smart Card or other certificate.
  35. Click Edit.
  36. Choose the appropriate certificate in the Certificate issued to drop down list.
  37. Click OK.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  38. Uncheck all options beneath Less secure authentication methods.
  39. Click Next three times.
  40. Click Finish.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Mobility Server Configuration

Open the NetMotion Mobility management console and perform the following steps.

  1. In the drop-down menu click Configure.
  2. Click Authentication Settings.
  3. Click New.
  4. Enter a descriptive name for the new authentication profile.
  5. Click OK.
  6. Expand Authentication.
  7. Select Mode.
  8. Select Unattended Mode Authentication Setting Override.
  9. From the Authentication mode drop-down box choose Unattended.
  10. Click Apply.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  11. Expand RADIUS: Device Authentication.
  12. Select Servers.
  13. Select [Profile Name] Authentication Setting Override.
  14. Click Add.
  15. Enter the IP address of the NPS server.
  16. Enter the port (default is 1812).
  17. Enter the shared secret.
  18. Click OK.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  19. In the drop-down menu click Configure.
  20. Click Client Settings.
  21. Expand Device Settings.
  22. Select the device group to enable unattended mode for.
  23. Expand Authentication.
  24. Select Settings Profile.
  25. Select [Device Group Name] Group Settings Override.
  26. In the Profile drop-down menu choose the authentication profile created previously.
  27. Click Apply.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Validation Testing

If everything is configured correctly, the NetMotion Mobility client will now indicate that the user and the device have been authenticated.

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Summary

Enabling unattended mode with NetMotion Mobility provides feature parity with DirectAccess machine tunnel and Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel. It ensures that domain connectivity is available before the user logs on. This allows users to log on remotely without cached credentials. It also allows administrators to continue working seamlessly on a remote computer after a reboot without having a user present to log on.

Additional Resources

NetMotion Mobility as an Alternative to DirectAccess

 

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB ClusteringDirectAccess connections are bidirectional, allowing administrators to remotely connect to clients and manage them when they are out of the office. DirectAccess clients use IPv6 exclusively, so any communication initiated from the internal network to remote DirectAccess clients must also use IPv6. If IPv6 is not deployed natively on the internal network, the Intrasite Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) IPv6 transition technology can be used to enable manage out.

ISATAP Supportability

According to Microsoft’s support guidelines for DirectAccess, using ISATAP for manage out is only supported for single server deployments. ISATAP is not supported when deployed in a multisite or load-balanced environment.

Not supported” is not the same as “doesn’t work” though. For example, ISATAP can easily be deployed in single site DirectAccess deployments where load balancing is provided using Network Load Balancing (NLB).

ISATAP Configuration

To do this, you must first create DNS A resource records for the internal IPv4 address for each DirectAccess server as well as the internal virtual IP address (VIP) assigned to the cluster.

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

Note: Do NOT use the name ISATAP. This name is included in the DNS query block list on most DNS servers and will not resolve unless it is removed. Removing it is not recommended either, as it will result in ALL IPv6-enabled hosts on the network configuring an ISATAP tunnel adapter.

Once the DNS records have been added, you can configure a single computer for manage out by opening an elevated PowerShell command window and running the following command:

Set-NetIsatapConfiguration -State Enabled -Router [ISATAP FQDN] -PassThru

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

Once complete, an ISATAP tunnel adapter network interface with a unicast IPv6 address will appear in the output of ipconfig.exe, as shown here.

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

Running the Get-NetRoute -AddressFamily IPv6 PowerShell command will show routes to the client IPv6 prefixes assigned to each DirectAccess server.

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

Finally, verify network connectivity from the manage out host to the remote DirectAccess client.

Note: There is a known issue with some versions of Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 that may prevent manage out using ISATAP from working correctly. There’s a simple workaround, however. More details can be found here.

Group Policy Deployment

If you have more than a few systems on which to enable ISATAP manage out, using Active Directory Group Policy Objects (GPOs) to distribute these settings is a much better idea. You can find guidance for creating GPOs for ISATAP manage out here.

DirectAccess Client Firewall Configuration

Simply enabling ISATAP on a server or workstation isn’t all that’s required to perform remote management on DirectAccess clients. The Windows firewall running on the DirectAccess client computer must also be configured to securely allow remote administration traffic from the internal network. Guidance for configuring the Windows firewall on DirectAccess clients for ISATAP manage out can be found here.

ISATAP Manage Out for Multisite and ELB

The configuration guidance in this post will not work if DirectAccess multisite is enabled or external load balancers (ELB) are used. However, ISATAP can still be used. For more information about enabling ISATAP manage out with external load balancers and/or multisite deployments, fill out the form below and I’ll provide you with more details.

Summary

Once ISATAP is enabled for manage out, administrators on the internal network can remotely manage DirectAccess clients wherever they happen to be. Native Windows remote administration tools such as Remote Desktop, Windows Remote Assistance, and the Computer Management MMC can be used to manage remote DirectAccess clients. In addition, enterprise administration tools such as PowerShell remoting and System Center Configuration Manger (SCCM) Remote Control can also be used. Further, third-party remote administration tools such as VNC, TeamViewer, LogMeIn, GoToMyPC, Bomgar, and many others will also work with DirectAccess ISATAP manage out.

Additional Information

ISATAP Recommendations for DirectAccess Deployments

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP Fails on Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 

DirectAccess Client Firewall Rule Configuration for ISATAP Manage Out

DirectAccess Manage Out and System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM)

Contact Me

Interested in learning more about ISATAP manage out for multisite and external load balancer deployments? Fill out the form below and I’ll get in touch with you.

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShellWindows 10 Always On VPN and DirectAccess both provide seamless, transparent, always on remote network access for Windows clients. However, Always On VPN is provisioned to the user, not the machine as it is with DirectAccess. This presents a challenge for deployment scenarios that require the VPN connection to be established before the user logs on. For example, pre-logon connectivity is required to support remote logon without cached credentials. To address this issue and to provide feature parity with DirectAccess, Microsoft introduced support for a device tunnel configuration option beginning with Windows 10 version 1709 (Fall creators update).

Learn Windows 10 Always On VPN today! Register for an upcoming Always On VPN Hands-On Training class. Locations remaining for 2019 include Dallas, Washington D.C., San Francisco, and San Diego. More details here!

Prerequisites

To support an Always On VPN device tunnel, the client computer must be running Windows 10 Enterprise or Education version 1709 (Fall creators update) or later. It must also be domain-joined and have a computer certificate with the Client Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) issued by the organization’s Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

In addition, only the built-in Windows VPN client is supported for Always On VPN device tunnel. Although Windows 10 Always On VPN user connections can be configured using various third-party VPN clients, they are not supported for use with the device tunnel.

VPN ProfileXML

The Always On VPN device tunnel is provisioned using an XML file. You can download a sample VPN ProfileXML file here. Make any changes required for your environment such as VPN server hostnames, routes, traffic filters, and remote address ranges. Optionally include the trusted network detection code, if required. Do not change the protocol type or authentication methods, as these are required.

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/remote/remote-access/vpn/vpn-device-tunnel-config#configure-the-vpn-device-tunnel

Once the ProfileXML file is created, it can be deployed using Intune, System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM), or PowerShell. In this post I’ll cover how to configure Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel using PowerShell.

Client Configuration

Download the PowerShell script located here and then copy it to the target client computer. The Always On VPN device tunnel must be configured in the context of the local system account. To accomplish this, it will be necessary to use PsExec, one of the PsTools included in the Sysinternals suite of utilities. Download PsExec here, copy it to the target machine, and then run the following command in an elevated PowerShell command window.

PsExec.exe -i -s C:\windows\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Another elevated PowerShell window will open, this one now running in the context of the local system account. In this window, navigate to the folder where you copied the PowerShell script and XML file to. Run the PowerShell script and specify the name of the ProfileXML file, as shown below.

VPN_Profile_Device.ps1 -xmlFilePath .\profileXML_device.XML -ProfileName DeviceTunnel

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

To verify creation of the VPN device tunnel, run the following PowerShell command.

Get-VpnConnection -AllUserConnection

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Note: In Windows 10 releases prior to 1903 the ConnectionStatus will always report Disconnected. This has been fixed in Windows 10 1903.

Server Configuration

If you are using Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016 Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) as your VPN server, you must enable machine certificate authentication for VPN connections and define a root certification authority for which incoming VPN connections will be authenticated with. To do this, open an elevated PowerShell command and run the following commands.

$VPNRootCertAuthority = “Common Name of trusted root certification authority”
$RootCACert = (Get-ChildItem -Path cert:LocalMachine\root | Where-Object {$_.Subject -Like “*$VPNRootCertAuthority*” })
Set-VpnAuthProtocol -UserAuthProtocolAccepted Certificate, EAP -RootCertificateNameToAccept $RootCACert -PassThru

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Limitations

Using PowerShell to provision an Always On VPN device tunnel is helpful for initial testing and small pilot deployments, but it does not scale very well. For production deployments it is recommended that Microsoft Intune be used to deploy Always On VPN device tunnel.

Deploy Device Tunnel with Intune

Guidance for deploying an Always On VPN device tunnel using Microsoft Intune can be found here. You can also view the following demonstration video that includes detailed guidance for provisioning the Always On VPN device tunnel using Microsoft Intune.

Summary

Once the Always On VPN device tunnel is configured, the client computer will automatically establish the connection as soon as an active Internet connection is detected. This will enable remote logins for users without cached credentials, and allow administrators to remotely manage Always On VPN clients without requiring a user to be logged on at the time.

Additional Information

Deploy Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel using Microsoft Intune

VIDEO: Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel using Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Does Not Connect Automatically

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Does Not Appear in the UI

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training

 

 

 

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration Guidance Now Available

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration Guidance Now AvailableWindows 10 Always On VPN hands-on training classes now forming. Details here.

When Always On VPN is configured for Windows 10, the VPN connection is established automatically when the user logs on to their device. This differs fundamentally from DirectAccess, where the connection is established by the machine, before the user logs on. This subtle but important difference has some important ramifications. For example, it means that a user cannot use Always On VPN until they’ve logged on to their device at least once while connected to the corporate network. DirectAccess doesn’t have this limitation, as a connection to an on-premises domain controller is available to authenticate a new user upon first logon.

Device Tunnel Support

To address this shortcoming with Always On VPN, and to provide better feature parity with DirectAccess, Microsoft introduced an update to Windows 10 in the recent Fall Creators update (v1709) that allows for the configuration of a device tunnel for Windows 10 Always On VPN. Once enabled, the device itself can automatically establish a secure remote connection before the user logs on. This enables scenarios such as device provisioning for new remote users without cached credentials. It also enables support for password reset using CTRL+ALT+DEL.

Manage Out

Device tunnel for Windows 10 Always On VPN also enables important manage out scenarios that DirectAccess administrators have come to rely upon. With a device tunnel configured, administrators can initiate connections to remote connected Always On VPN clients to provide remote management and support, without requiring a user to be logged on at the time.

Requirements

To support an Always On VPN device tunnel, the client must be running Windows 10 Enterprise or Education v1709 or later. The computer must be domain-joined and have a machine certificate installed. Device tunnel can only be configured using the built-in Windows 10 VPN client (no support for third-party clients) and the IKEv2 protocol must be used.

Caveat

When configuring a device tunnel, traffic filters can be implemented to restrict communication to only those internal resources required, such as domain controllers, Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) or System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) servers. However, when traffic filters are used, no inbound traffic to the client is allowed. If manage out is required over the device tunnel, traffic filters cannot be configured. Microsoft expects to remove this limitation in a future update.

Provisioning and Documentation

Configuring and provisioning a Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel is similar to the process for the Always On VPN connection itself. A VPN profileXML file is created and then deployed via a Mobile Device Management (MDM) solution such as Microsoft Intune. Optionally, the VPN profileXML can be deployed using SCCM or PowerShell. Additional information about Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel configuration, including a sample profileXML and PowerShell script, can be found here.

Additional Resources

Configure a VPN Device Tunnel in Windows 10

Always On VPN and the Future of DirectAccess

5 Things DirectAccess Administrators Should Know about Always On VPN

5 Things DirectAccess Administrators Should Know About Always On VPN

5 Things DirectAccess Administrators Should Know About Always On VPNWindows 10 Always On VPN hands-on training classes now forming. Details here.

As I’ve written about previously, Microsoft is no longer investing in DirectAccess going forward. There will be no new features or functionality added to the product in the future. Microsoft is now investing in Always On VPN in Windows 10, with new features being released with each semi-annual update of the operating system. But as Microsoft continues to make the push toward Always On VPN over DirectAccess, many administrators have asked about the ramifications of this shift in focus for enterprise remote access. Here are a few points to consider.

It’s the same thing, only different.

Always On VPN provides the same seamless, transparent, always on experience as DirectAccess. Under the covers, the mechanics of how that’s accomplished changes a bit, but fundamentally the user experience is exactly the same. Once a user logs on to their device, a VPN connection is established automatically and the user will have secure remote access to corporate resources.

The connection is still secure.

Where DirectAccess uses IPsec and Connection Security Rules (CSRs) to establish its secure tunnels, Always On VPN uses traditional client-based VPN protocols such as IKEv2, SSTP, L2TP, and PPTP. Both DirectAccess and Always On VPN use certificates for authentication. However, where DirectAccess uses machine certificates to authenticate the computer, Always On VPN leverages user certificates to authenticate the user.

(Note: Machine certificates will be required for Always On VPN when using the optional device tunnel configuration. I will publish more details about this configuration option in a future article.)

Provisioning and managing clients is different.

The administrative experience for Always On VPN is much different than it is with DirectAccess. Where DirectAccess made use of Active Directory and group policy for managing client and server settings, Always On VPN clients must be provisioned using a Mobile Device Management (MDM) solution such as Microsoft Intune, or any third-party MDM platform. Optionally, Always On VPN clients can be provisioned using Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM), or manually using PowerShell.

Security is enhanced.

Always On VPN has the potential to provide much more security and protection than DirectAccess. Always On VPN supports traffic filtering, allowing administrators to restrict remote client communication by IP address, protocol, port, or application. By contrast, DirectAccess allows full access to the internal network after user logon with no native capability to restrict access. In addition, Always On VPN supports integration with Azure Active Directory, which enables conditional access and multifactor authentication scenarios.

It’s built for the future.

Always On VPN also provides support for modern authentication mechanisms like Windows Hello for Business. In addition, Windows Information Protection (WIP) integration is supported to provide essential protection for enterprise data.

Summary

Microsoft set the bar pretty high with DirectAccess. Users love the seamless and transparent access it provides, and administrators reap the benefit of improved systems management for field based devices. Always On VPN provides those same benefits, with additional improvements in security and protection. If you’d like more information about Always On VPN, fill out the form below and I’ll get in touch with you.

Additional Information

Always On VPN and the Future of DirectAccess

3 Important Advantages of Windows 10 Always On VPN over Microsoft DirectAccess

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training

NetMotion Mobility as an Alternative to DirectAccess

Learn more about NetMotion Mobility by registering for my free live webinar here!

NetMotion Mobility as an Alternative to DirectAccessAs I outlined in a recent blog post, there has been much speculation surrounding the end of life for Microsoft DirectAccess. This is not surprising, as Microsoft has not made any investments in DirectAccess since the introduction of Windows Server 2012. Recently, Microsoft began promoting its Always On VPN solution as an alternative for DirectAccess. While DirectAccess has not been formally deprecated, Microsoft is actively encouraging organizations considering DirectAccess to deploy Always On VPN instead, as indicated here.

NetMotion Mobility as an Alternative to Microsoft DirectAccess

Source: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/remote/remote-access/vpn/vpn-top#advanced-vpn-connectivity

DirectAccess Alternatives

It’s important to state that, at the time of this writing, DirectAccess is still fully supported in Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 and will be for quite some time. However, the future for DirectAccess is definitely limited, and customers should start considering alternative remote access solutions.

Always On VPN

Microsoft is positioning Always On VPN as the replacement for DirectAccess. Always On VPN offers some important new capabilities missing from DirectAccess. For example, Always On VPN supports all Windows 10 client SKUs, not just Enterprise and Education as DirectAccess does. Always On VPN includes important security enhancements such as conditional access with system health checks, access control list (ACL) enforcement per device and per application, and more.

Always On VPN Limitations

But Always On VPN has some serious limitations too. For example, Always On VPN works only with Windows 10. Windows 7 is not supported at all. Managing and supporting Always On VPN has its own challenges. It cannot be managed using Active Directory and group policy in the traditional way. You must use System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM), Intune, or PowerShell to configure and manage VPN clients.

NetMotion Mobility

I’m excited to announce I’ve recently partnered with NetMotion to provide their secure remote access solutions to organizations looking for alternatives to DirectAccess and Always On VPN. NetMotion Mobility provides the same seamless and transparent, always on remote access with some additional important features not included in DirectAccess and Always On VPN.

Broad Client Support – NetMotion Mobility can provide DirectAccess-like remote access for all versions and SKUs of Windows as well as Mac, iOS (iPhone and iPad), and Android.

Enhanced Security – NetMotion Mobility includes fine-grained policy enforcement to restrict network access based on a wide range of parameters including IP address, protocol, port, application, time of day, location, and type of network (e.g. wired, Wi-Fi, wireless, etc.). NetMotion Mobility also includes integrated Network Access Control (NAC) to validate device configuration prior to connecting, ensuring the highest level of security for remote endpoints. More details here and here.

Improved Performance – NetMotion Mobility client to server communication is optimized to improve reliability and performance. Network traffic is compressed and prioritized to ensure optimum performance for critical applications. Session persistence allows mobile workers to remain connected during times of poor connectivity or when roaming between different networks. More details here.

Greater Visibility – NetMotion Mobility provides a wealth of detailed information to perform analysis and troubleshooting for remote connections. Performance and diagnostic information is logged in real-time and provides administrators with crucial data and insight to quickly identify and resolve connectivity issues. More details here.

Better Supportability – NetMotion Mobility is supported by dedicated, highly trained support engineers with deep product experience. NetMotion support is not tiered. The support engineer who answers the phone will handle the case until resolution.

Learn More about NetMotion

NetMotion Mobility is a truly comprehensive remote access solution and an excellent alternative to DirectAccess. To learn more about NetMotion Mobility and to see it in action, fill out the form below and I’ll get in touch with you. You can also register for my upcoming free live webinar here.

Additional Information

Webinar: Comparing DirectAccess and NetMotion Mobility

Always On VPN and the Future of DirectAccess

NetMotion and DirectAccess Comparison Whitepaper

NetMotion and Skype for Business demonstration video

NetMotion Website

Always On VPN and the Future of Microsoft DirectAccess

Windows 10 Always On VPN hands-on training classes now forming. Details here.

Since the introduction of Windows Server 2012 in September of 2012, no new features or functionality have been added to DirectAccess. In Windows Server 2016, the only real change aside from bug fixes for DirectAccess is the removal of Network Access Protection (NAP) integration support.

Always On VPN and the Future of Microsoft DirectAccessFigure 1. Remote Access Setup wizard with NAP integration option in Windows Server 2012/R2.

Always On VPN and the Future of Microsoft DirectAccess

Figure 2. Remote Access Setup wizard without NAP integration option in Windows Server 2016.

DirectAccess Roadmap

It’s clear to see that Microsoft is no longer investing in DirectAccess, and in fact their field sales teams have been communicating this to customers for quite some time now. Microsoft has been actively encouraging organizations who are considering a DirectAccess solution to instead implement client-based VPN with Windows 10.

Always On VPN

New features introduced in the Windows 10 Anniversary Update allow IT administrators to configure automatic VPN connection profiles. This Always On VPN connection provides a DirectAccess-like experience using traditional remote access VPN protocols such as IKEv2, SSTP, and L2TP/IPsec. It comes with some additional benefits as well.

  • Conditional access and device compliance with system health checks
  • Windows Hello for Business and Azure multifactor authentication
  • Windows Information Protection (WIP) integration
  • Traffic filters to restrict VPN network access
  • Application-trigger VPN connections

DirectAccess Deprecated?

There has been rampant speculation that Microsoft plans to deprecate and retire DirectAccess. While that may in fact be true, Microsoft has yet to make a formal end-of-life announcement. There’s no reason DirectAccess and VPN couldn’t co-exist, so it’s not a certainty Microsoft will do this. However, there’s also no need to have multiple remote access solutions, and it is abundantly clear that the future for Microsoft remote access is Always On VPN and not DirectAccess.

Always On VPN and the Future of Microsoft DirectAccess

Source: https://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/38546.new-features-for-vpn-in-windows-10-and-windows-server-2016.aspx#Advanced_VPN_Connectivity

Always On VPN Advantages and Disadvantages

Windows 10 Always On VPN has some important advantages over DirectAccess. It has some crucial limitations as well.

Advantages

  • Always On VPN supports non-Enterprise Windows 10 client SKUs (Windows 10 Home and Professional)
  • Always On VPN includes support for granular network access control
  • Always On VPN can use both IPv4 and IPv6
  • Always On VPN is infrastructure independent. In addition to supporting Windows RRAS, any third-party network device can be used such as Cisco, Checkpoint, Juniper, Palo Alto, SonicWALL, Fortinet, and many more

Disadvantages

  • Always On VPN works only with Windows 10. It is not supported for Windows 7
  • Always On VPN cannot be managed natively using Active Directory and group policy. It must be configured and managed using Microsoft Intune. Alternatively, Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) or PowerShell can be used.

DirectAccess or Always On VPN?

Should you deploy DirectAccess today or implement Always On VPN with Windows 10 instead? That depends on a number of factors. It’s important to understand that DirectAccess will be fully supported through the lifecycle of Windows Server 2019. If DirectAccess meets your needs today, you can deploy it with confidence that it will still have a long support life. If you have reservations about the future viability of DirectAccess, and if you meet all of the requirements to support Always On VPN with Windows 10, then perhaps that’s a better choice. If you’d like to discuss your remote access options in more detail, fill out the form below and I’ll get in touch with you.

Additional Resources

5 Things DirectAccess Administrators Should Know About Always On VPN

3 Important Advantages of Always On VPN over DirectAccess

NetMotion Mobility as an Alternative to DirectAccess

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training Classes

 

%d bloggers like this: