Always On VPN Device Tunnel Status Indicator

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Status IndicatorI’ve written many articles about the Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel over the years. If you are not familiar with the device tunnel, it is an optional configuration that provides pre-logon connectivity for domain-joined, Enterprise edition Windows 10 clients. Although the device tunnel was designed to supplement the user tunnel connection, some administrators have deployed the device tunnel exclusively and use it for general on-premises network access. While I do not typically recommend this configuration for a variety of reasons, there are some use cases for which using the device tunnel might be acceptable.

Device Tunnel Status

For those administrators who have decided to deploy the device tunnel exclusively, a common complaint is that the device tunnel connection status does not appear in the Windows 10 notification area like other network or user tunnel connections.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Status Indicator

However, the device tunnel does appear in the classic Network Connections control panel applet (ncpa.cpl).

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Status Indicator

Enable Device Tunnel Status Indicator

Fortunately, there is a simple workaround that allows for the device tunnel connection status to appear in the Windows 10 notification area. This can be done by setting the following registry value.

HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Flyout\VPN\ShowDeviceTunnelInUI DWORD = 1

You can set this registry value using Active Directory group policy preferences or locally by running the following PowerShell command.

New-Item -Path ‘HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Flyout\VPN’ -Force
New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\Flyout\VPN\’ -Name ‘ShowDeviceTunnelInUI’ -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force

Once this registry value is set, the Always On VPN device tunnel will appear in the notification area long with other network connections.

Caveat

Although the UI will now display the connectivity status of the Always On VPN device tunnel, clicking Disconnect has no effect. This is expected and by design, as the device tunnel is deployed in the context of the system, not the user. Disconnecting the device tunnel must be performed by an administrator using the GUI tool rasphone.exe or the command line tool rasdial.exe.

Always On VPN Device Tunnel Status Indicator

Blog Post Comments

For the record, several readers of this blog had posted this workaround in the comments of this post. In the past. I declined to approve those comments because initially I did not want to encourage people to deploy the device tunnel standalone. However, recently I have had a change of heart, and decided to publish this information for those administrators who want to use the device tunnel exclusively, and would also benefit from a visual connectivity status indicator for the Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel. Although I still do not recommend using the device tunnel alone, I understand that it may be acceptable for others, so I have decided to release that information here.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Only Deployment Considerations

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Operation and Best Practices

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel with Azure VPN Gateway

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel and Certificate Revocation

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Does Not Connect Automatically

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Missing in Windows 10 UI

Removing Always On VPN Connections

Removing Always On VPN ConnectionsMuch has been written about provisioning Windows 10 Always On VPN client connections over the past few years. While the preferred method for deploying Always On VPN is Microsoft Intune, using PowerShell is often helpful for initial testing, and required for production deployment with System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) or Microsoft Endpoint Manager (MEM). That said, there will invariably come a time when an administrator has to remove an Always On VPN connection. It is not as simple as you might think.

PowerShell

There are a variety of ways to remove an existing Always On VPN connection, with the quickest and simplest being PowerShell and the Remove-VpnConnection cmdlet.

Get-VpnConnection -Name ‘Always On VPN’ | Remove-VpnConnection -Force

There are several limitations to this method, however.

Active Connections

Administrators will quickly realize that PowerShell fails to remove a VPN connection that is currently connected. As shown here, attempting to remove an active VPN connection will return the following error message.

“The VPN connection [connection name] cannot be removed from the local user connections. Cannot delete a connection while it is connected.”

Removing Always On VPN Connections

Registry Artifacts

Removing Always On VPN connections using PowerShell commonly leaves behind registry artifacts that can potentially cause problems. For example, there are several Always On VPN-related registry entries in several locations including the HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\EnterpriseResourceManager\Tracked hive that may not be deleted when removing an Always On VPN connection. When provisioning a new Always On VPN connection after deleting one with the same name previously, the administrator may encounter the following error message.

“Unable to create [connection name] profile: A general error occurred that is not covered by a more specific error code.”

Removing Always On VPN Connections

Note: This error can also be caused by improperly formatted XML configuration files. More details here.

Remove-AovpnConnection Script

Veteran Always On VPN administrators are likely familiar with PowerShell scripts I’ve created called New-AovpnConneciton.ps1 and New-AovpnDeviceConnection.ps1, which are hosted on my GitHub. These scripts are adapted from code samples published by Microsoft to which I have included additional functionality. To address the limitations highlighted in this article I have published a new PowerShell script called Remove-AovpnConnection.ps1. It will remove any Always On VPN connection, even those that are currently active. It also includes logic to remove known registry artifacts common to Always On VPN. Download the script from GitHub and use the following syntax to remove an Always On VPN connection, established or not.

.\Remove-AovpnConnection.ps1 -ProfileName [connection name]

Running this PowerShell command will forcibly remove an Always On VPN connection. Use the -DeviceTunnel switch when removing a device tunnel connection (requires running in the system context). I have also included a -CleanUpOnly switch to remove registry artifacts when the VPN connection was previously removed using another method.

Updated Installation Scripts

I have also updated New-AovpnConnection.ps1 to include these registry clean up steps. This will prevent future errors when provisioning an Always On VPN client where a connection of the same name was removed previously.

Note: New-AovpnConnection.ps1 has also been updated to support device tunnel deployments. As such, I have deprecated New-AovpnDeviceConnection.ps1. Simply use New-AovpnConnection.ps1 with the -DeviceTunnel switch to deploy an Always On VPN device tunnel.

Additional Information

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using PowerShell

Troubleshooting Always On VPN Unable to Create Profile General Error

 

Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing and NAT

Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing and NATOver the last few weeks, I’ve worked with numerous organizations and individuals troubleshooting connectivity and performance issues associated with Windows 10 Always On VPN, and specifically connections using the Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) VPN protocol. An issue that appears with some regularity is when Windows 10 clients fail to connect with error 809. In this scenario, the server will accept connections without issue for a period of time and then suddenly stop accepting requests. When this happens, existing connections continue to work without issue in most cases. Frequently this occurs with Windows Server Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) servers configured in a clustered array behind an External Load Balancer (ELB).

Network Address Translation

It is not uncommon to use Network Address Translation (NAT) when configuring Always On VPN. In fact, for most deployments the public IP address for the VPN server resides not on the VPN server, but on an edge firewall or load balancer connected directly to the Internet. The firewall/load balancer is then configured to translate the destination address to the private IP address assigned to the VPN server in the perimeter/DMZ or the internal network. This is known a Destination NAT (DNAT). Using this configuration, the client’s original source IP address is left intact. This configuration presents no issues for Always On VPN.

Source Address Translation

When troubleshooting these issues, the common denominator seems to be the use of Full NAT, which includes translating the source address in addition to the destination. This results in VPN client requests arriving at the VPN server as appearing not to come from the client’s original IP address, but the IP address of the network device (firewall or load balancer) that is translating the request. Full NAT may be explicitly configured by an administrator, or in the case of many load balancers, configured implicitly because the load balancer is effectively proxying the connection.

Known Issues

IKEv2 VPN connections use IPsec for encryption, and by default, Windows limits the number of IPsec Security Associations (SAs) coming from a single IP address. When a NAT device is performing destination/full NAT, the VPN server sees all inbound IKEv2 VPN requests as coming from the same IP address. When this happens, clients connecting using IKEv2 may fail to connect, most commonly when the server is under moderate to heavy load.

Resolution

The way to resolve this issue is to ensure that any load balancers or NAT devices are not translating the source address but are performing destination NAT only. The following is configuration guidance for F5, Citrix ADC (formerly NetScaler), and Kemp load balancers.

F5

On the F5 BIG-IP load balancer, navigate to the Properties > Configuration page of the IKEv2 UDP 500 virtual server and choose None from the Source Address Translation drop-down list. Repeat this step for the IKEv2 UDP 4500 virtual server.

Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing and NAT

Citrix ADC

On the Citrix ADC load balancer, navigate to System > Settings > Configure Modes and check the option to Use Subnet IP.

Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing and NAT

Next, navigate to Traffic Management > Load Balancing > Service Groups and select the IKEv2 UDP 500 service group. In the Settings section click edit and select Use Client IP. Repeat these steps for the IKEv2 UDP 4500 service group.

Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing and NAT

Kemp

On the Kemp LoadMaster load balancer, navigate to Virtual Services > View/Modify Services and click Modify on the IKEv2 UDP 500 virtual service. Expand Standard Options and select Transparency. Repeat this step for the IKEv2 UDP 4500 virtual service.

Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing and NAT

Caveat

Making the changes above may introduce routing issues in your environment. When configuring these settings, it may be necessary to configure the VPN server’s default gateway to use the load balancer to ensure proper routing. If this is not possible, consider implementing the workaround below.

Workaround

To fully resolve this issue the above changes should be made to ensure the VPN server can see the client’s original source IP address. If that’s not possible for any reason, the following registry key can be configured to increase the number of established SAs from a single IP address. Be advised this is only a partial workaround and may not fully eliminate failed IKEv2 connections. There are other settings in Windows that can prevent multiple connections from a single IP address which are not adjustable at this time.

To implement this registry change, open an elevated PowerShell command window on the RRAS server and run the following commands. Repeat these commands on all RRAS servers in the organization.

New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\IKEEXT\Parameters\’ -Name IkeNumEstablishedForInitialQuery -PropertyType DWORD -Value 50000 -Force

Restart-Service IKEEXT -Force -PassThru

Additional Information

IPsec Traffic May Be Blocked When A Computer is Behind a Load Balancer

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing with Citrix NetScaler ADC

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing with F5 BIG-IP

Windows 10 Always On VPN IKEv2 Load Balancing with Kemp LoadMaster

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update AvailableWhen configuring Always On VPN, administrators have the option to enable DNS registration for VPN clients. When this option is set, VPN clients will register the IP address assigned to their VPN interface in the internal DNS. This allows client devices to be managed using their hostname from the internal network whenever they are connected remotely.

DNS Registration

DNS registration is enabled in one of two ways, depending on how Always On VPN client devices are managed.

Intune

When using the native Microsoft Intune UI to manage Always On VPN profiles, DNS registration can be configured by selecting Enabled next to Register IP addresses with internal DNS in the Base VPN settings section.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

ProfileXML

When using custom ProfileXML with PowerShell, SCCM, or Intune, the administrator will define the RegisterDNS element to enable DNS registration.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Known Issues

Some users have reported unexpected behavior when DNS registration is enabled. Specifically, under some circumstances the VPN client will register the IP address of the VPN network interface along with the IP address of its public network interface (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, etc.). However, the VPN client can only be managed using the VPN interface. If the VPN client’s hostname resolves to its public IP address, manage out will fail.

This appears to happen only when Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules are defined in Intune DNS settings, or if the DomainNameInformation element is defined in ProfileXML.

Always On VPN DNS Registration Update AvailableAlways On VPN DNS Registration Update Available

Resolution

Microsoft recently released fixes for this DNS registration issue for Windows 10. The fix for this issue is included in the following updates.

Windows 10 1803 – KB4507466
Windows 10 1809 – KB4505658
Windows 10 1903 – KB4505903

Additional Configuration

After installing the update, the following registry entry must be defined on each VPN client.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dnscache\Parameters\DisableNRPTForAdapterRegistration DWORD = 1

To enable this setting, open an elevated PowerShell window and run the following command.

New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dnscache\Parameters\’ -Name DisableNRPTForAdapterRegistration -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force

Once complete, restart the client device for the changes to take effect. After validation testing is complete, the registry entry can be deployed to Always On VPN clients using Active Directory group policy preferences or Intune.

Additional Information

Deploying Windows 10 Always On VPN with Intune using Custom ProfileXML

Windows 10 Always On VPN Updates to Improve Connection Reliability

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Configuration using Microsoft Intune

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training Classes

Always On VPN RasMan Errors in Windows 10 1903

Always On VPN RasMan Errors in Windows 10 1903After deploying or upgrading to Windows 10 1903, administrators may find that Windows 10 Always On VPN connections fail to establish successfully. Always On VPN connections continue to work for Windows 10 1809 and earlier clients, however.

Important Note: The issue described in this article has been addressed in KB4505903 (build 18362.267) released July 26, 2019.

RasMan Event Log Errors

When this occurs, the application event log contains an error with Event ID 1000 that includes the following information.

“Faulting application name: svchost.exe_RasMan…”, “Faulting module name: rasmans.dll”, and “Exception code: 0xc0000005”

Always On VPN RasMan Errors in Windows 10 1903 Administrators may find that Windows 10 Always On VPN connections fail after deploying or upgrading to Windows 10 1903. Always On VPN connections continue to work for Windows 10 1809 and earlier clients. RasMan Event Log Errors When this occurs, the application event log contains an error with Event ID 1000 that includes the following information. “Faulting application name: svchost.exe_RasMan…”, “Faulting module name: rasmans.dll”, and “Exception code: 0xc0000005” Root Cause RasMan failures can occur in Windows 10 1903 clients when telemetry is disabled via group policy or the registry. Microsoft has identified the issue and is currently working on a fix. Workaround As a temporary workaround to restore Always On VPN connectivity, enable telemetry on Windows 10 1903 using Active Directory or local group policy, the local registry, or PowerShell. Group Policy Create a new GPO or edit an existing one by opening the group policy management console (gpmc.msc) and performing the following steps. 1. Expand Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Data Collection and Preview Builds 2. Double-Click Allow Telemetry. 3. Select Enabled. 4. Choose 1-Basic, 2-Enhanced, or 3-Full (do not select 0-Security). 5. Click Ok. Registry Telemetry can also be enabled locally by opening the registry editor (regedit.exe) and modifying the following registry setting. HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\AllowTelemetry DWORD = 1 Note: The AllowTelemetry value can be removed entirely, if desired. PowerShell PowerShell can also be used modify or remove the AllowTelemetry value on Windows 10 1903 clients. Run the following PowerShell command to update the AllowTelemetry setting. New-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\' -Name AllowTelemetry -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force Optionally, run the following PowerShell command to remove the AllowTelemetry setting entirely. Remove-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\' -Name AllowTelemetry Restart Required Once these changes have been made, restart the client and test the Always On VPN connection. Additional Information asdf

Root Cause

RasMan failures can occur in Windows 10 1903 clients when telemetry is disabled via group policy or the registry. Microsoft has identified the issue and is currently working on a fix.

Workaround

As a temporary workaround to restore Always On VPN connectivity, enable telemetry on Windows 10 1903 using Active Directory or local group policy, the local registry, or PowerShell.

Group Policy

Create a new GPO or edit an existing one by opening the group policy management console (gpmc.msc) and performing the following steps.

1. Expand Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Data Collection and Preview Builds
2. Double-click Allow Telemetry.
3. Select Enabled.
4. Choose 1-Basic, 2-Enhanced, or 3-Full (do not select 0-Security).
5. Click Ok.

Always On VPN RasMan Errors in Windows 10 1903 Administrators may find that Windows 10 Always On VPN connections fail after deploying or upgrading to Windows 10 1903. Always On VPN connections continue to work for Windows 10 1809 and earlier clients. RasMan Event Log Errors When this occurs, the application event log contains an error with Event ID 1000 that includes the following information. “Faulting application name: svchost.exe_RasMan…”, “Faulting module name: rasmans.dll”, and “Exception code: 0xc0000005” Root Cause RasMan failures can occur in Windows 10 1903 clients when telemetry is disabled via group policy or the registry. Microsoft has identified the issue and is currently working on a fix. Workaround As a temporary workaround to restore Always On VPN connectivity, enable telemetry on Windows 10 1903 using Active Directory or local group policy, the local registry, or PowerShell. Group Policy Create a new GPO or edit an existing one by opening the group policy management console (gpmc.msc) and performing the following steps. 1. Expand Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Data Collection and Preview Builds 2. Double-Click Allow Telemetry. 3. Select Enabled. 4. Choose 1-Basic, 2-Enhanced, or 3-Full (do not select 0-Security). 5. Click Ok. Registry Telemetry can also be enabled locally by opening the registry editor (regedit.exe) and modifying the following registry setting. HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\AllowTelemetry DWORD = 1 Note: The AllowTelemetry value can be removed entirely, if desired. PowerShell PowerShell can also be used modify or remove the AllowTelemetry value on Windows 10 1903 clients. Run the following PowerShell command to update the AllowTelemetry setting. New-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\' -Name AllowTelemetry -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force Optionally, run the following PowerShell command to remove the AllowTelemetry setting entirely. Remove-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\' -Name AllowTelemetry Restart Required Once these changes have been made, restart the client and test the Always On VPN connection. Additional Information asdf

Registry

Telemetry can also be enabled locally by opening the registry editor (regedit.exe) and modifying the following registry setting.

HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\AllowTelemetry DWORD = 1

Always On VPN RasMan Errors in Windows 10 1903 Administrators may find that Windows 10 Always On VPN connections fail after deploying or upgrading to Windows 10 1903. Always On VPN connections continue to work for Windows 10 1809 and earlier clients. RasMan Event Log Errors When this occurs, the application event log contains an error with Event ID 1000 that includes the following information. “Faulting application name: svchost.exe_RasMan…”, “Faulting module name: rasmans.dll”, and “Exception code: 0xc0000005” Root Cause RasMan failures can occur in Windows 10 1903 clients when telemetry is disabled via group policy or the registry. Microsoft has identified the issue and is currently working on a fix. Workaround As a temporary workaround to restore Always On VPN connectivity, enable telemetry on Windows 10 1903 using Active Directory or local group policy, the local registry, or PowerShell. Group Policy Create a new GPO or edit an existing one by opening the group policy management console (gpmc.msc) and performing the following steps. 1. Expand Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Data Collection and Preview Builds 2. Double-Click Allow Telemetry. 3. Select Enabled. 4. Choose 1-Basic, 2-Enhanced, or 3-Full (do not select 0-Security). 5. Click Ok. Registry Telemetry can also be enabled locally by opening the registry editor (regedit.exe) and modifying the following registry setting. HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\AllowTelemetry DWORD = 1 Note: The AllowTelemetry value can be removed entirely, if desired. PowerShell PowerShell can also be used modify or remove the AllowTelemetry value on Windows 10 1903 clients. Run the following PowerShell command to update the AllowTelemetry setting. New-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\' -Name AllowTelemetry -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force Optionally, run the following PowerShell command to remove the AllowTelemetry setting entirely. Remove-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\' -Name AllowTelemetry Restart Required Once these changes have been made, restart the client and test the Always On VPN connection. Additional Information asdf

Note: The AllowTelemetry value can be removed entirely, if desired.

PowerShell

PowerShell can also be used modify or remove the AllowTelemetry value on Windows 10 1903 clients. Run the following PowerShell command to update the AllowTelemetry setting.

New-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\’ -Name AllowTelemetry -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force

Optionally, run the following PowerShell command to remove the AllowTelemetry setting entirely.

Remove-ItemProperty -Path ‘HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\DataCollection\’ -Name AllowTelemetry

Service Restart Required

Once these changes have been made, restart the Remote Access Connection Manager service (RasMan) using the Services mnagement console (services.msc) or by running the following PowerShell command.

Restart-Service RasMan -PassThru

Optionally, the client can be rebooted to apply these changes.

Additional Information

Windows 10 1903 Known Issues

 

DirectAccess IPv6 Support for WorkSite and iManage Work

DirectAccess IPv6 Support for WorkSite and iManage WorkiManage Work (formerly WorkSite) is a popular document management system commonly used in the legal, accounting, and financial services industries. Historically, there have been issues getting WorkSite to function over DirectAccess, because WorkSite used IPv4 addresses and DirectAccess clients use IPv6. When a DirectAccess client is outside of the office, it communicates with the DirectAccess server using IPv6 exclusively, so applications that make calls directly to IPv4 addresses won’t work.

One way DirectAccess administrators could make WorkSite function was to use portproxy to create v4tov6 address and port mappings on the client. However, this method is error prone, difficult to troubleshoot and support, and doesn’t scale effectively.

The good news is that beginning with release 9, the iManage Work client application has been upgraded to support IPv6. However, it is not enabled by default. To enable IPv6 support for iManage Work, add the following registry key on the client side (not the server!). No other changes are required.

HKLM\Software\Wow6432Node\Interwoven\WorkSite\Server Common\

Type: REG_SZ
String: IP Address Family
Value: IPv6

DirectAccess IPv6 Support for WorkSite and iManage Work

You can also use the following PowerShell command to add this registry entry.

New-Item -Path “HKLM:\Software\Wow6432Node\Interwoven\WorkSite\Server Common\” -Force
New-ItemProperty -Path “HKLM:\Software\Wow6432Node\Interwoven\WorkSite\Server Common\”-Name “IP Address Family” -PropertyType String -Value IPv6 -Force

After validation testing is complete, deploy the registry setting via Active Directory group policy preferences to all DirectAccess clients and iManage Work will function perfectly over DirectAccess!

Additional Resources

Active Directory Group Policy Preferences on Microsoft TechNet

iManage Web Site

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

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