DirectAccess troubleshooting can be made much easier using open source tools such as Nmap. Nmap can be used to perform many essential network connectivity and configuration checks, including validating network paths, confirming DirectAccess server response, and viewing SSL configuration. Nmap can also be used to ensure that the attack surface of the DirectAccess server is properly minimized. Some tests can be performed using only native Nmap functionality, while others require the use of specialized Nmap scripts that are included with the tool.
Nmap can be installed on a wide variety of operating systems, including Windows. If you plan to install Nmap on Windows, be sure to also install WinPcap and the Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 Redistributable. Both are included in the download.
Testing External Connectivity
Validating external connectivity is often one of the first DirectAccess troubleshooting steps I take. Confirm that the DirectAccess public hostname resolves to the correct IP address, then run the following Nmap command to validate network connectivity from the Internet to the DirectAccess server.
nmap -n -Pn -p443 <da_public_hostname>
If the hostname resolves correctly and the network path is complete, the server should respond and Nmap will show the port as open. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean that the DirectAccess server is the device that replied! Due to misconfiguration, it is possible that another server or network device listening on TCP port 443 responded, so this is not a conclusive test.
DirectAccess Server Response
To confirm the DirectAccess server is responding to HTTPS requests and not some other server or device, run the following Nmap command with the ip-https-discover script.
nmap -n -Pn -p443 <da_public_hostname> –script ip-https-discover
If the DirectAccess server responds to the request, Nmap will return the following message:
IP-HTTPS is supported. This indicates that this host supports Microsoft DirectAccess.
If the port is open but the script does not return this message, it is likely that another server or device is responding on TCP port 443, not the DirectAccess server.
Note: If an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) is configured to perform IP-HTTPS preauthentication, the Nmap IP-HTTPS discovery script will not return this result. This is expected and by design.
SSL Certificate Validation
It is not uncommon for DirectAccess clients to fail to connect via IP-HTTPS because of SSL certificate issues. Specifically, an SSL certificate that is not trusted, is expired, or its subject field does not match the public hostname will prevent DirectAccess clients from connecting. To view the SSL certificate configuration of a DirectAccess server, run the following Nmap command with the ssl-cert script.
nmap -n -Pn -p443 <da_public_hostname> –script ssl-cert
SSL Cipher Suite Configuration
Occasionally there can be issues with the SSL configuration on the DirectAccess server that prevent some clients from connecting, or result in poor performance. This commonly occurs when administrators perform SSL hardening on the DirectAccess server and remove support for null cipher suites. Null cipher suites should never be disabled on the DirectAccess server. They are important to ensure the highest levels of performance for Windows 8.x and Windows 10 clients. Also, if an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) or load balancer is performing SSL offload, lack of support for null cipher suites will prevent Windows 8.x and Windows 10 clients from connecting. To determine if the DirectAccess server supports null cipher suites, run the following Nmap command with the ssl-enum-ciphers script.
nmap -n -Pn -p443 <da_public_hostname> –script ssl-enum-ciphers
Attack Surface Audit
If DirectAccess implementation and security best practices are followed, the DirectAccess server will be behind an edge firewall. The only port required to be allowed inbound for DirectAccess is TCP port 443. It is recommended that a full port scan be performed against the DirectAccess server’s public IPv4 address to identify any unnecessary ports that may be open externally. To perform a full port scan, run the following Nmap command.
nmap -n -Pn -p- <da_public_hostname>
Ideally it should look like this.
If it looks something like this, you’re in serious trouble!
The DirectAccess server should never be listening for requests other that HTTPS on the public Internet. Exposing services such as SMB (TCP port 445), RDP (TCP port 3389), and others presents a significant security risk. It is recommended that edge firewalls be configured to allow inbound TCP port 443 only. If the DirectAccess server is connected directly to the public Internet (not recommended!) then the Windows Firewall should be configured to restrict access to inbound TCP port 443 only.
DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Discovery Script for Nmap
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