DirectAccess Troubleshooting and the Windows 10 Network Connectivity Assistant

DirectAccess Troubleshooting and the Windows 10 Network Connectivity AssistantOne of the first places administrators look for information about the DirectAccess client connection is the Network Connectivity Assistant (NCA). The NCA is used to view current connection status and to gather detailed information that is helpful for troubleshooting failed DirectAccess connections. The NCA was first integrated with the client operating system beginning with Windows 8. Similar functionality can be extended to Windows 7 clients by installing and configuring the Windows 7 DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA).

NCA

The DirectAccess NCA can be accessed by pressing the Windows Key + I and then clicking on Network & Internet and DirectAccess. Here you’ll find a helpful visual indicator of current connectivity status, and for multisite deployments you’ll also find details about the current entry point.

DirectAccess Troubleshooting and the Windows 10 Network Connectivity Assistant

DirectAccess Missing?

If DirectAccess does not appear in the list, open an elevated PowerShell window and restart the Network Connectivity Assistant service (NcaSvc) using the following command.

Restart-Service NcaSvc

If you receive the error “Failed to start service ‘Network Connectivity Assistant (NcaSvc)‘”, ensure that the client operating system is Enterprise or Education edition. The NCA service will always fail to start on Professional edition as it is not a supported DirectAccess client.

Log Collection

The DirectAccess NCA also provides access to crucial troubleshooting information. Clicking on the Collect button creates a detailed diagnostic log file that is often helpful for troubleshooting DirectAccess connectivity issues.

DirectAccess Troubleshooting and the Windows 10 Network Connectivity Assistant

Troubleshooting Info Missing?

The option to collect a log, and email it to your IT admin will only be displayed if a support email address is defined in the DirectAccess configuration. To define a support email address, open the Remote Access Management console and perform the following steps.

1. Click Edit on Step 1.
2. Click Network Connectivity Assistant.
3. Enter an email address in the Helpdesk email address field.
4. Click Finish to complete Step 1.
5. Click Finish to apply the changes.

Email Program

Microsoft assumes that an end user will be generating the DirectAccess client troubleshooting log and will be emailing them to their administrator. If an email program is not installed on the client, the following information is displayed.

There is no email program associated to perform the requested action. Please install an email program or, if one is already installed, create an associate in the Default Programs control panel.

DirectAccess Troubleshooting and the Windows 10 Network Connectivity Assistant

If you wish to simply view the log file on the client and not email them, you can find the generated DirectAccess troubleshooting log file in HTML format in the following location.

%SystemDrive%\Users\%Username%\AppData\Local\Temp

DirectAccess Troubleshooting and the Windows 10 Network Connectivity Assistant

Unable to Generate Log Files

There are numerous reports that generating the DirectAccess troubleshooting log fails on Windows 10 v1709. DirectAccess administrators have been reporting that the process seems to fail during the creation of the log file, leaving it truncated and incomplete. To resolve this issue, open an elevated PowerShell window and enter the following command.

New-ItemProperty -Path “HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NcaSvc\” -Name SvcHostSplitDisable -PropertyType DWORD -Value 1 -Force

The computer must be restarted for this change to take effect. If initial testing of this workaround is successful, the registry setting can be pushed out to all DirectAccess clients using Active Directory Group Policy Preferences.

Additional Information

Installing and Configuring DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant 2.0 on Windows 7 Clients

Planning and Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Video Training Course on Pluralsight

Managing and Supporting DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Video Training Course on Pluralsight

Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016 Book

Deleting an Always On VPN Device Tunnel

Deleting an Always On VPN Device TunnelWindows 10 Always On VPN supports both a user tunnel for corporate network access, and a device tunnel typically used to provide pre-logon network connectivity and to support manage out scenarios. The process of testing Always On VPN is often an iterative one involving trial and error testing to fine tune the configuration parameters to achieve the best experience. As a part of this process it will often be necessary to delete a connection at some point. For the user tunnel the process is simple and straightforward. Simply disconnect the session and delete the connection in the UI.

Deleting an Always On VPN Device Tunnel

Deleting a device tunnel connection presents a unique challenge though. Specifically, there is no VPN connection in the UI to disconnect and remove. To delete an Always On VPN device tunnel, open an elevated PowerShell window and enter the following command.

Get-VpnConnection -AllUserConnection | Remove-VpnConnection -Force

If the device tunnel is connected when you try to remove it, you will receive the following error message.

The VPN connection [connection_name] cannot be removed from the global user connections. Cannot
delete a connection while it is connected.

Deleting an Always On VPN Device Tunnel

The device tunnel must first be disconnected to resolve this issue. Enter the following command to disconnect the device tunnel.

rasdial.exe [connection_name] /disconnect

Remove the device tunnel connection using PowerShell once complete.

Deleting an Always On VPN Device Tunnel
Additional Resources

Windows 10 Always On VPN Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

What’s The Difference Between DirectAccess and Always On VPN?

Windows 10 Always On VPN Recommendations for Windows Server 2016 Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS)

Windows 10 Always On VPN Hands-On Training

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS and Symantec SSL Certificates

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS and Symantec SSL CertificatesAn SSL certificate is required to support the IP-HTTPS IPv6 transition technology when configuring DirectAccess. Implementation best practices dictate using a public SSL certificate signed by a trusted third-party vendor such as Entrust, Verisign, DigiCert, and others. SSL certificates issued by a private PKI are acceptable if the client trusts the issuing CA. Self-signed certificates are supported in some deployment scenarios, but their use is generally discouraged. For more detailed information regarding SSL certificate considerations for DirectAccess IP-HTTPS click here.

Symantec Issued Certificates

Symantec is a popular commercial SSL certificate provider that has been commonly used for many years. However, due to integrity issues associated with their PKI management practices, Google and Mozilla announced they will soon be deprecating these certificates. This means users who browse to an HTTPS web site protected with a Symantec SSL certificate will receive a warning in their browser indicating the certificate is not trusted.

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS

It is important to note that there is no impact at all for DirectAccess when the server is configured to use an SSL certificate issued by Symantec. There is nothing you need to do to address this issue in this scenario. However, if a wildcard certificate is installed on the DirectAccess server and it is also used on other public-facing web servers in the organization, it is likely that the certificate will replaced, perhaps by another certificate provider. In this case, DirectAccess IP-HTTPS must be configured to use the new or updated SSL certificate.

Updating IP-HTTPS SSL Certificate

To update the DirectAccess IP-HTTPS SSL certificate, import the SSL certificate along with the private key in to the local computer certificate store on each DirectAccess server. Next identify the thumbprint of the new SSL certificate. Finally, open an elevated PowerShell command window and enter the following command.

$thumbprint = “ssl_cert_thumbprint”
$cert = Get-ChildItem -Path cert:\localmachine\my | where {$_.thumbprint -eq $thumbprint}
Set-RemoteAccess -SslCertificate $cert -PassThru

Be sure to replace “ssl_cert_thumbprint” with the actual thumbprint of your SSL certificate. 😉 In addition, for load-balanced and/or multisite deployments, run these PowerShell commands on each server in the enterprise.

Additional Information

SSL Certificate Considerations for DirectAccess IP-HTTPS

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Null Cipher Suites Not Available 

DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Performance Issues

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel ConfigurationIn its default configuration, NetMotion Mobility connections are established at the user level. In most cases this level of access is sufficient, but there are some common uses cases that require VPN connectivity before the user logs on. Examples include provisioning a new device to a user who has never logged on before, or to allow support engineers to connect to a remote device without requiring a user to log in first.

Infrastructure Requirements

To support NetMotion Mobility’s “unattended mode” (device tunnel) it will be necessary to deploy a Windows Server 2016 (or 2012R2) Network Policy Server (NPS). In addition, an internal private certification authority (CA) will be required to issue certificates to the NPS server and all NetMotion Mobility client computers.

Client Certificate Requirements

A certificate with the Client Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) must be provisioned to the local computer certificate store on all NetMotion Mobility clients that require a device tunnel (figure 1). The subject name on the certificate must match the fully qualified domain name of the client computer (figure 2). It is recommended that certificate auto enrollment be used to streamline the provisioning process.

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Figure 1. Computer certificate with Client Authentication EKU.

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Figure 2. Computer certificate with subject name matching the client computer’s hostname.

NPS Server Certificate Requirements

A certificate with the Server Authentication EKU must be provisioned to the local computer certificate store on the NPS server (figure 3). The subject name on the certificate must match the fully qualified domain name of the NPS server (figure 4).

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Figure 3. Computer certificate with Server Authentication EKU.

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Figure 4. Computer certificate with subject name matching the NPS server’s hostname.

NPS Server Configuration

Next install the NPS server role by running the following PowerShell command.

Install-WindowsFeature NPAS -IncludeMamagementTools

Once complete, open the NPS server management console and perform the following steps.

Note: Below is a highly simplified NPS configuration designed for a single use case. It is provided for demonstration purposes only. The NPS server may be used by more than one network access server (NAS) so the example policies included below may not work in every deployment.

  1. Expand RADIUS Clients and Servers.
  2. Right-click RADIUS clients and choose New.
  3. Select the option to Enable this RADIUS client.
  4. Enter a friendly name.
  5. Enter the IP address or hostname of the NetMotion gateway server.
  6. Click Verify to validate the hostname or IP address.
  7. Select Manual to enter a shared secret, or select Generate to create one automatically.
  8. Copy the shared secret as it will be required when configure the NetMotion Mobility gateway server later.
  9. Click OK.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  10. Expand Policies.
  11. Right-click Network Policies and choose New.
  12. Enter a descriptive name for the new policy.
  13. Select Type of network access server and choose Unspecified.
  14. Click Next.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  15. Click Add.
  16. Select Client IPv4 Address.
  17. Click Add.
  18. Enter the internal IPv4 address of the NetMotion Mobility gateway server.
  19. Click OK.
  20. Click Next.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  21. Select Access granted.
  22. Click Next.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  23. Click Add.
  24. Choose Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP).
  25. Click OK.
  26. Select Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP).
  27. Click Edit.
  28. Choose the appropriate certificate in the Certificate issued to drop down list.
  29. Select Secure password (EAP-MSCHAP v2).
  30. Click Remove.
  31. Click Add.
  32. Choose Smart Card or other certificate.
  33. Click OK.
  34. Select Smart Card or other certificate.
  35. Click Edit.
  36. Choose the appropriate certificate in the Certificate issued to drop down list.
  37. Click OK.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  38. Uncheck all options beneath Less secure authentication methods.
  39. Click Next three times.
  40. Click Finish.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Mobility Server Configuration

Open the NetMotion Mobility management console and perform the following steps.

  1. In the drop-down menu click Configure.
  2. Click Authentication Settings.
  3. Click New.
  4. Enter a descriptive name for the new authentication profile.
  5. Click OK.
  6. Expand Authentication.
  7. Select Mode.
  8. Select Unattended Mode Authentication Setting Override.
  9. From the Authentication mode drop-down box choose Unattended.
  10. Click Apply.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  11. Expand RADIUS: Device Authentication.
  12. Select Servers.
  13. Select [Profile Name] Authentication Setting Override.
  14. Click Add.
  15. Enter the IP address of the NPS server.
  16. Enter the port (default is 1812).
  17. Enter the shared secret.
  18. Click OK.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration
  19. In the drop-down menu click Configure.
  20. Click Client Settings.
  21. Expand Device Settings.
  22. Select the device group to enable unattended mode for.
  23. Expand Authentication.
  24. Select Settings Profile.
  25. Select [Device Group Name] Group Settings Override.
  26. In the Profile drop-down menu choose the authentication profile created previously.
  27. Click Apply.
    NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Validation Testing

If everything is configured correctly, the NetMotion Mobility client will now indicate that the user and the device have been authenticated.

NetMotion Mobility Device Tunnel Configuration

Summary

Enabling unattended mode with NetMotion Mobility provides feature parity with DirectAccess machine tunnel and Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel. It ensures that domain connectivity is available before the user logs on. This allows users to log on remotely without cached credentials. It also allows administrators to continue working seamlessly on a remote computer after a reboot without having a user present to log on.

Additional Resources

NetMotion Mobility as an Alternative to DirectAccess

 

Always On VPN and Windows Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS)

Windows 10 Always On VPN hands-on training classes now forming. Details here.

Always On VPN and Windows Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS)

As I’ve written about in the past, Windows 10 Always On VPN has many advantages over DirectAccess. One of the most important features is that Always On VPN is completely infrastructure independent. Always On VPN is implemented entirely on the client side, so there is no reliance on Windows infrastructure servers at all. In theory, you could deploy an Always On VPN solution using an entirely third-party backend infrastructure. This is crucial because many organizations already have security infrastructure in place today. However, there are still some compelling reasons to choose Windows Server 2016 as the VPN server to support Windows 10 Always On VPN.

Considerations for Windows Server

Windows Server 2016 includes a very capable VPN server in the Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) role. Using Windows Server 2016 RRAS will meet the requirements for many deployment scenarios. RRAS also provides some unique advantages too. The following are some important considerations for choosing RRAS for VPN.

Easy to Deploy

The RRAS role in included in all Windows server network operating systems and can be enabled easily using the GUI or PowerShell. RRAS is mature and well-documented, making installation and configuration simpler. In fact, all of the Microsoft Windows 10 Always On VPN documentation guidance references RRAS.

Reduced Costs

No investment in proprietary hardware is required, because RRAS runs on Windows Server 2016 and can be deployed on existing virtual infrastructure. Deploying additional RRAS virtual machines enables quick and efficient scaling up of the solution without the need to deploy additional expensive hardware. Importantly, RRAS requires no additional per-client or per-device licensing. In addition, RRAS can be managed using existing Windows administration skill sets and does not require dedicated, and often expensive solution-specific expertise.

Modern Protocol Support

RRAS includes support for modern VPN protocols such as Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) and Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP). IKEv2 is the protocol of choice or most deployments, and is required for supporting the device tunnel. SSTP is a firewall-friendly protocol that ensures remote Windows clients can connect from anywhere. Layer Two Tunneling Protocol over IPsec (L2TP/IPsec) and Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) are also supported for legacy client compatibility.

Summary

Although Windows 10 Always On VPN can be implemented using third-party VPN servers, it’s important not to overlook Windows server either. Windows Server 2016 RRAS has some important advantages over third-party infrastructure. RRAS is mature and well understood, with an abundance of published documentation available. Leveraging RRAS eliminates the need for costly proprietary hardware and client licensing, while at the same time reducing administrative overhead and streamlining support. RRAS also includes native support for modern VPN protocols, ensuring reliable client connectivity from any location.

Additional Resources

3 Important Advantages of Windows 10 Always On VPN over DirectAccess 

Windows 10 Always On VPN and the Future of DirectAccess 

5 Things DirectAccess Administrators Should Know About Always On VPN 

 

 

DirectAccess NRPT Configuration with Split DNS

DirectAccess NRPT Configuration with Split DNSThe Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) in Windows provides policy-based name resolution request routing for DNS queries. DirectAccess uses the NRPT to ensure that only requests for resources in the internal namespace, as defined by the DirectAccess administrator, are sent over the DirectAccess connection. DNS queries for all other namespaces are sent to the DNS servers defined on the client’s network interface.

Note: This behavior changes when force tunneling is enabled. In this case, all DNS queries are sent over the DirectAccess connection with the exception of the NLS and the DirectAccess server’s public hostname(s). If force tunneling is enabled, the configuration guidance described below is not required.

Split DNS

NRPT configuration is straightforward when the internal and external namespaces are unique. However, when split DNS is used, meaning when the internal and external namespaces are the same, DirectAccess configuration is more challenging. Typically, there may be many resources that should not go over the DirectAccess connection, such as public-facing web servers, email and unified communications servers, federation servers, etc. Without additional configuration, requests for all of these services would go over the DirectAccess connection. That may or may not be desirable, depending on the requirements of the implementation.

DirectAccess Server

One crucial public resource is the DirectAccess server itself. When using split DNS, the DirectAccess implementation’s public hostname will, by default, be included in the internal namespace. In this scenario, the DirectAccess client will fail to establish a connection to the DirectAccess server.

Troubleshooting

When troubleshooting failed connectivity, the output of ipconfig will show the IP-HTTPS tunnel interface media state as “Media disconnected”.

DirectAccess NRPT Configuration with Split DNS

The output of Get-NetIPHttpsState will also return an error code 0x2AF9 with an interface status “Failed to connect to the IPHTTPS server; waiting to reconnect”.

DirectAccess NRPT Configuration with Split DNS

To further troubleshoot this issue, examine the output of Get-NetIPHttpsConfiguration. Test name resolution of the FQDN listed in the ServerURL field. If the issue is related to NRPT configuration, the client will fail to resolve this name to an IP address. Testing from a non-DirectAccess client should resolve correctly, however.

DirectAccess NRPT Configuration with Split DNS

NRPT Configuration

If split DNS is employed, it is necessary to include the DirectAccess server’s public hostname in the NRPT as an exemption. This will cause the DNS query for the public hostname to use public DNS servers, allowing the DirectAccess client to establish a connection successfully.

To resolve this issue, open the Remote Access Management console on the DirectAccess server, highlight DirectAccess and VPN under Configuration, and then click Edit on Step 3. Select DNS, and then double-click on an empty row in the table.

DirectAccess NRPT Configuration with Split DNS

Enter the public hostname for the DirectAccess deployment in the DNS suffix field (the public hostname can be found by clicking Edit on Step 2). Do NOT specify a DNS server. Click Apply, click Next twice, and then click Finish.

DirectAccess NRPT Configuration with Split DNS

Note: For multisite deployments, be sure to include the public hostname for each entry point in the enterprise. Also, if multisite is configured to use GSLB, include the GSLB hostname as well.

PowerShell

Alternatively, you can run the following PowerShell commands to automatically configure the NRPT for split DNS. For multisite deployments, be sure to run these commands on at least one DirectAccess server in each site.

$hostname = Get-RemoteAccess | Select-Object -ExpandProperty ConnectToAddress
Add-DAClientDnsConfiguration -DnsSuffix $hostname -PassThru

If multisite is configured to use GSLB, run the following PowerShell commands on one DirectAccess server in the enterprise.

$gslbfqdn = Get-DAMultiSite | Select-Object -ExpandProperty GslbFqdn
Add-DAClientDnsConfiguration -DnsSuffix $gslbfqdn -PassThru

Additional Information

Troubleshooting DirectAccess IP-HTTPS Error 0x2af9

DirectAccess DNS Not Working Properly

DirectAccess DNS Records Explained

Troubleshooting Name Resolution Issue on DirectAccess Clients

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB ClusteringDirectAccess connections are bidirectional, allowing administrators to remotely connect to clients and manage them when they are out of the office. DirectAccess clients use IPv6 exclusively, so any communication initiated from the internal network to remote DirectAccess clients must also use IPv6. If IPv6 is not deployed natively on the internal network, the Intrasite Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) IPv6 transition technology can be used to enable manage out.

ISATAP Supportability

According to Microsoft’s support guidelines for DirectAccess, using ISATAP for manage out is only supported for single server deployments. ISATAP is not supported when deployed in a multisite or load-balanced environment.

Not supported” is not the same as “doesn’t work” though. For example, ISATAP can easily be deployed in single site DirectAccess deployments where load balancing is provided using Network Load Balancing (NLB).

ISATAP Configuration

To do this, you must first create DNS A resource records for the internal IPv4 address for each DirectAccess server as well as the internal virtual IP address (VIP) assigned to the cluster.

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

Note: Do NOT use the name ISATAP. This name is included in the DNS query block list on most DNS servers and will not resolve unless it is removed. Removing it is not recommended either, as it will result in ALL IPv6-enabled hosts on the network configuring an ISATAP tunnel adapter.

Once the DNS records have been added, you can configure a single computer for manage out by opening an elevated PowerShell command window and running the following command:

Set-NetIsatapConfiguration -State Enabled -Router [ISATAP FQDN] -PassThru

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

Once complete, an ISATAP tunnel adapter network interface with a unicast IPv6 address will appear in the output of ipconfig.exe, as shown here.

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

Running the Get-NetRoute -AddressFamily IPv6 PowerShell command will show routes to the client IPv6 prefixes assigned to each DirectAccess server.

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP and NLB Clustering

Finally, verify network connectivity from the manage out host to the remote DirectAccess client.

Note: There is a known issue with some versions of Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 that may prevent manage out using ISATAP from working correctly. There’s a simple workaround, however. More details can be found here.

Group Policy Deployment

If you have more than a few systems on which to enable ISATAP manage out, using Active Directory Group Policy Objects (GPOs) to distribute these settings is a much better idea. You can find guidance for creating GPOs for ISATAP manage out here.

DirectAccess Client Firewall Configuration

Simply enabling ISATAP on a server or workstation isn’t all that’s required to perform remote management on DirectAccess clients. The Windows firewall running on the DirectAccess client computer must also be configured to securely allow remote administration traffic from the internal network. Guidance for configuring the Windows firewall on DirectAccess clients for ISATAP manage out can be found here.

ISATAP Manage Out for Multisite and ELB

The configuration guidance in this post will not work if DirectAccess multisite is enabled or external load balancers (ELB) are used. However, ISATAP can still be used. For more information about enabling ISATAP manage out with external load balancers and/or multisite deployments, fill out the form below and I’ll provide you with more details.

Summary

Once ISATAP is enabled for manage out, administrators on the internal network can remotely manage DirectAccess clients wherever they happen to be. Native Windows remote administration tools such as Remote Desktop, Windows Remote Assistance, and the Computer Management MMC can be used to manage remote DirectAccess clients. In addition, enterprise administration tools such as PowerShell remoting and System Center Configuration Manger (SCCM) Remote Control can also be used. Further, third-party remote administration tools such as VNC, TeamViewer, LogMeIn, GoToMyPC, Bomgar, and many others will also work with DirectAccess ISATAP manage out.

Additional Information

ISATAP Recommendations for DirectAccess Deployments

DirectAccess Manage Out with ISATAP Fails on Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 

DirectAccess Client Firewall Rule Configuration for ISATAP Manage Out

DirectAccess Manage Out and System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM)

Contact Me

Interested in learning more about ISATAP manage out for multisite and external load balancer deployments? Fill out the form below and I’ll get in touch with you.

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShellWindows 10 Always On VPN and DirectAccess both provide seamless, transparent, always on remote network access for Windows clients. However, Always On VPN is provisioned to the user, not the machine as it is with DirectAccess. This presents a challenge for deployment scenarios that require the VPN connection to be established before the user logs on. To address this issue, Microsoft introduced support for a device tunnel configuration option beginning with Windows 10 version 1709 (Fall creators update).

Want to learn more about Windows 10 Always On VPN? Register for one of my hands-on training classes now forming in cities across the U.S. Details here.

Prerequisites

To support an Always On VPN device tunnel, the client computer must be running Windows 10 Enterprise or Education version 1709 (Fall creators update). It must also be domain-joined and have a computer certificate with the Client Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) issued by the organization’s Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

In addition, only the built-in Windows VPN client is supported for Always On VPN device tunnel. Although Windows 10 Always On VPN user connections can be configured using various third-party VPN clients, they are not supported for use with the device tunnel.

VPN ProfileXML

The Always On VPN device tunnel is provisioned using an XML file. You can download a sample VPN ProfileXML file here. Make any changes required for your environment such as VPN server hostnames, routes, traffic filters, and remote address ranges. Optionally include the trusted network detection code, if required. Do not change the protocol type or authentication methods, as these are required.

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/remote/remote-access/vpn/vpn-device-tunnel-config#configure-the-vpn-device-tunnel

Once the ProfileXML file is created, it can be deployed using Intune, System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM), or PowerShell. In this post I’ll cover how to configure Windows 10 Always On VPN device tunnel using PowerShell.

Client Configuration

Download the PowerShell script located here and then copy it to the target client computer. The Always On VPN device tunnel must be configured in the context of the local system account. To accomplish this, it will be necessary to use PsExec, one of the PsTools included in the Sysinternals suite of utilities. Download PsExec here, copy it to the target machine, and then run the following command in an elevated PowerShell command window.

PsExec.exe -i -s C:\windows\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Another elevated PowerShell window will open, this one now running in the context of the local system account. In this window, navigate to the folder where you copied the PowerShell script and XML file to. Run the PowerShell script and specify the name of the ProfileXML file, as shown below.

VPN_Profile_Device.ps1 -xmlFilePath .\profileXML_device.XML -ProfileName DeviceTunnel

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

To verify creation of the VPN device tunnel, run the following PowerShell command.

Get-VpnConnection -AllUserConnection

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Note: Be advised that the ConnectionStatus is always Disconnected. Hopefully this will be addressed by Microsoft in the near future.

Server Configuration

If you are using Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016 Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) as your VPN server, you must enable machine certificate authentication for VPN connections and define a root certification authority for which incoming VPN connections will be authenticated with. To do this, open an elevated PowerShell command and run the following commands.

$VPNRootCertAuthority = “Common Name of trusted root certification authority”
$RootCACert = (Get-ChildItem -Path cert:LocalMachine\root | Where-Object {$_.Subject -Like “*$VPNRootCertAuthority*” })
Set-VpnAuthProtocol -UserAuthProtocolAccepted Certificate, EAP -RootCertificateNameToAccept $RootCACert -PassThru

Always On VPN Windows 10 Device Tunnel Step-by-Step Configuration using PowerShell

Summary

Once the Always On VPN device tunnel is configured, the client computer will automatically establish the connection as soon as an active Internet connection is detected. This will enable remote logins for users without cached credentials, and allow administrators to remotely manage Always On VPN clients without requiring a user to be logged on at the time.

Additional Information

Configure Windows 10 VPN Device Tunnel on Microsoft.com

3 Important Advantages of Always On VPN over DirectAccess

5 Things DirectAccess Administrators Should Know About Always On VPN 

Windows 10 Always On VPN and the Future of DirectAccess

Windows 10 Always On VPN Training and Consulting Services

Outlook Offline over DirectAccess on Windows 10

Outlook Offline over DirectAccess on Windows 10You may encounter a scenario in which Outlook on Windows 10 reports that it is working offline while connected remotely via DirectAccess. The Network Connectivity Status Indicator (NCSI) shows DirectAccess is in a connected state and all other internal resources are accessible.

Outlook Offline over DirectAccess on Windows 10

This is caused by the default settings of the IP-HTTPS tunnel interface on the DirectAccess server not advertising a default route for connected DirectAccess clients. To resolve this issue, enable default route advertising for IP-HTTPS on each DirectAccess server in the enterprise by running the following PowerShell command.

Get-NetIPInterface | Where-Object {$_.InterfaceAlias -eq “IPHTTPSInterface”} | Set-NetIPInterface -AdvertiseDefaultRoute Enabled -PassThru

Outlook Offline over DirectAccess on Windows 10

In the past I’ve heard reports of this setting being overwritten after group policy refresh. Recent testing on Windows Server 2016 does not show this behavior, however. Please report any results you may have in the comments below. Thanks!

PowerShell Recommended Reading for DirectAccess and Always On VPN Administrators

PowerShell Recommended Reading for DirectAccess and Always On VPN AdministratorsPowerShell is an important skill for administrators supporting Microsoft workloads including DirectAccess and Always On VPN. Using PowerShell to install required roles and features is much simpler and quicker than using the Graphical User Interface (GUI), with only a single command required to accomplish this task. Some settings aren’t exposed in the GUI and can only be configured using PowerShell. In addition, PowerShell makes the task of troubleshooting DirectAccess and Always On VPN much easier.

Learn PowerShell

One of the best resources for learning PowerShell is the book Learn PowerShell in a Month of Lunches authored by Microsoft MVPs and recognized PowerShell experts Don Jones and Jeff Hicks. This book, now in its third edition, should be considered essential reading for all Microsoft administrators. Click here for more details.

PowerShell Recommended Reading for DirectAccess and Always On VPN Administrators

Learn PowerShell Scripting

Recently Don and Jeff released a new book entitled Learn PowerShell Scripting in a Month of Lunches. This new book builds upon the skills learned in their first title by focusing on the development of PowerShell scripts to automate many common administrative tasks. PowerShell scripts can also be used to build custom, reusable tools to more effectively manage and monitor Microsoft workloads. Click here for more details.

PowerShell Recommended Reading for DirectAccess and Always On VPN Administrators

PowerShell for the Future

In my experience, far too many administrators today lack crucial PowerShell abilities. Don’t get left behind! PowerShell is rapidly becoming a required skill, so get these books and start learning PowerShell today!

Additional Resources

Top 5 DirectAccess Troubleshooting PowerShell Commands

Configure Windows Server Core to use PowerShell by Default

 

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