DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Introduction

When installing DirectAccess for the first time, an administrator may encounter the following error message while running the Remote Access Setup wizard.

Error. The client cannot connect to the destination specified in the request. Verify that the service on the destination is running and is accepting requests. Consult the logs and documentation for the WS-Management service running on the destination, most commonly IIS or WinRM. If the destination is the WinRM service, run the following command on the destination to analyze and configure the WinRM service: “winrm quickconfig”.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Troubleshooting

Running winrm quickconfig in an elevated PowerShell command window returns the following message.

WinRM service is already running on this machine.
WinRM is already set up for remote management on this computer.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Clicking Check prerequisites again does not resolve the error message.

Post-Installation Errors

If DirectAccess is already installed and working properly, an administrator may encounter a scenario in which the operations status page displays nothing, yet remote DirectAccess clients are connected and able to access corporate resources without issue.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

In addition, clicking Edit on Step 2 in the Remote Access Management console and choosing Network Adapters produces an error message stating “An error occurred when validating interfaces”. You can select a network adapter from the drop-down list, but the Next and Finish buttons are grayed out.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Conflicts with WinRM

These errors are commonly caused by a conflict with WinRM Service settings enforced via Active Directory group policy. To confirm this, open an elevated PowerShell command window run the winrm enumerate winrm/config/listener command. The listener configuration source will be listed as GPO.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

The administrator will also find the presence of the following registry keys on the DirectAccess server.

HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\AllowAutoConfig
HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\IPv4Filter
HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Service\IPv6Filter

Resolution

To resolve this conflict, prevent the GPO with this setting from being applied to the DirectAccess server(s). You will find this GPO setting in the Group Policy Management console (GPMC) by navigating to Computer Configuration -> Policies -> Administrative Templates -> Windows Components -> Windows Remote Management (WinRM) -> WinRM Service and setting the state of Allow remote server management through WinRM to Not configured.

DirectAccess WinRM Conflicts and Errors

Additional Resources

DirectAccess and Windows 10 Better Together

DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Education

VIDEO – DirectAccess and Windows 10 in Action 

BOOK – Implementing DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016

DirectAccess Network Location Server Guidance

Introduction

The Network Location Server (NLS) is a critical component in a DirectAccess deployment. The NLS is used by DirectAccess clients to determine if they are inside or outside of the corporate network. If a DirectAccess client can connect to the NLS, it must be inside the corporate network. If it cannot, it must be outside of the corporate network. It is for this reason that the NLS must not be reachable from the public Internet. A client configured for DirectAccess will probe the NLS when it first starts, and on subsequent network interface status changes.

What is the NLS?

The NLS itself is nothing more than a web server with an SSL certificate installed. Beginning with Windows Server 2012, the NLS can be collocated on the DirectAccess server itself. Although there may be scenarios in which this is acceptable, it is generally recommended that NLS be configured on a server dedicated to this role.

NLS Configuration

Any web server can be used, including IIS, Apache, Nginx, Lighttpd, and others. You can also use an Application Delivery Controller (ADC) like the F5 BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager (LTM), as described here. The web server must have a valid SSL certificate installed that includes a subject name that matches the NLS FQDN (e.g. nls.corp.example.com). The DNS record for the NLS must configured using an A host record. A CNAME DNS entry will not work. In addition, the NLS must also respond to ICMP echo requests.

DirectAccess Network Location Server Guidance

DirectAccess Network Location Server Guidance

The certificate can be issued by an internal PKI or a public third-party Certificate Authority (CA). A self-signed certificate can be used if the certificate is distributed to all DirectAccess clients and servers, but this is not advisable. To avoid possible service disruptions, the NLS should be made highly available by deploying at least two NLS in a load balanced configuration.

What Happens if the NLS is Offline?

If the NLS is offline for any reason, remote DirectAccess clients will be unaffected. However, DirectAccess clients on the internal network will mistakenly believe they are outside of the corporate network and attempt to establish a DirectAccess connection. If the DirectAccess server is not accessible from the internal network, the client will be unable to connect to any local network resources by name until the NLS is brought online or other actions are taken.

Collocation Issues

As mentioned previously, it is possible in some scenarios to collocate the NLS on the DirectAccess server. This is probably acceptable for proof-of-concept deployments, but any production deployment should have the NLS configured on a server dedicated to this role. If the NLS is located on the DirectAccess server and the server is offline for any reason, DirectAccess clients on the internal network will be unable to access local resources by name until the DirectAccess server is back online.

Don’t Use Existing Web Application Servers

Occasionally I will encounter a scenario in which an administrator who wants to avoid implementing additional infrastructure will use an existing internal web application server for the NLS, such as a SharePoint server. Although this will work, it quickly becomes an issue when remote DirectAccess clients need to access the server. Since the NLS is not resolvable or reachable externally, connectivity will fail, preventing DirectAccess clients from reaching the internal application.

Summary

The NLS is a vitally important piece of the DirectAccess architecture. DirectAccess clients use the NLS to determine their location, and if the service is unavailable for any reason (planned or unplanned) internal DirectAccess clients will be negatively affected. The NLS isn’t necessarily complicated, as it is nothing more than a web server with an SSL certificate installed. However, don’t overlook the importance of this service, and make sure it is highly available to avoid any potential network connectivity issues.

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